Thursday, March 8, 2012

My Friend the Doctor

Extra credit comes rolling in. 

Gregor Mendel
Gregor Mendel is most famous for his discovery on the laws of inheritance. Essentially – the basis of our knowledge on genetics. In the course of this discovery he bred pea plants. He found that one in four plants had pure-bred recessive alleles, two out of four were hybrid alleles, and one out of four was pure dominant alleles. This led to the Law of Segregation, or the fact that every person has a set of alleles for every trait they have. That pair is composed of one allele from the mother, and another from the father, creating a new allele pair. The segregation component is founded on the knowledge that one – not two – alleles are taken from each parent’s allele pair in gamete formation. Mendel’s discovery also led to the Law of Independent Assortment, meaning that the selection of gametes for one trait isn’t related to the gamete selection for another trait. Half of the 46 chromosomes come from the mother and the other half comes from the father. These two laws are the foundation of genetics; proof that Mendel was a vital scientist in our history.

 --Hannah T.

Maria Sibylla Merian 

She was born on April 2, 1647, in Frankfurt, Germany.  When she was 13 years old, her stepfather encouraged her to draw and paint.  Through this she started drawing images of insects and plants.  She made many careful documentations of the growth of insects and plants.  Her most famous observation was her documentation of metamorphoses.  She died on January 3, 1717, at age 69. 
--Elizabeth P.

Luigi Galvani was an Italian physician and physicist.  He was born in 1737 in Bologna Italy.  He studied medicine at the University of Bologna. He also recieved two advanced degrees in medicine and philosophy. He was a lecturer of anatomy and became famous for certain things.
He is most famous for the experiments considering electric currents in the body.  He performed experiments on frogs involving electric charges.  After hearing before that if an electric charge  is applied to the spinal cord of a frog it could create muscle spasms.  He experimented with this and soon        learned that dissected legs of frogs could move under certain        conditions.  That is an electric charge touches the spinal cord.        He concluded with this that there was a type of electrical fluid  in bodies.  This was one of his greatest discoveries.  He called this animal electricity and it was mostly the discovery of electricity moving through cells in the tissue. This helped contribute to future discoveries in neurology and neurophysiology.  
 --Ashley O. 

Fawzia Fahim

Fawzia is an Egyptian Scientist that has been studying effects of snake venom and iodoacetic acid on tumors.
She recieved a grant from the United Kingdom and, through this, attended Birmingham University.
She became an associate Professor in 1975 and a full professor in 1980.
Fawzia married her husband, whom she met during her time at Cario University, in 1959.

--Kenneth H.

Ernest Rutherford was born on August 31, 1871, to James Rutherford and Martha Thompson in Nelson, New Zealand.  He was the fourth child in his family, the second son of seven sons and five daughters.
            Rutherford received the 1908 Nobel Prize in chemistry for his work with radiation and the atomic nucleus.  Though he was proud and honored from the award, he was slightly put out because he studied physics, a science, he felt was far superior to chemistry.  He is most famous for his work with the atomic nucleus and helping to further develop the model of atom.  His gold foil experiments led him to present the atom as having a solid, positively charged nucleus with space surrounding it in which electrons orbited around the nucleus.
            Ernest Rutherford died on October 19, 1937, two years before the discovery of atomic fission.  His work with the nucleus helped develop this reaction, which is also called nuclear fission.  This process is when the nucleus of one heavy element splits into two or more nuclei of lighter elements.  During this splitting, large, substantial amounts of energy are released.  From this discovery came the development of nuclear weapons, including the atomic bomb.

--Chelsea Y. 

John Rex Whinfield was born in England in 1901. He  attended Merchand Taylors' School and Gonville and Caiuse College, Cambride, where he studied chemistry and natural sciences. He is famous for his discovery of polyesters along with his assistand James Dickson. They patented their design in 1941, but due to World War II, the discovery was not released until 1946. He died in 1966. 

--Andrew P.

 Agnes Arber was born in London in 1879. She studied at the University College London and Newnham College.

At the beginning of her career she was a research assistant to a plant anatomist. She continued her research in

the anatomy of plants and in 1912 she wrote her first book, Herbals, their origin and Evolution. Later on in her career

she also published many other books on various aspects of the botanicals. In 1946 she became the first woman

botanist to be elected a fellow of the Royal Society. She completed 84 papers between 1902 and 1957 as contributions

to comparative plant anatomy. Agnes Arbor died in 1960.

-Rachel H.

 Tycho Brahe was born in Denmark in 1546. He went to the University of Copenhagen and Leipzig and studied philosophy and law. But in his free time he studied astronomy. In 1572 he disccovered a supernova near the Cassiopeia constellation. After this the king of Norway and Denmark offered him the funds to build an observatory on an island called Hven. he accepted and built his observatory that is now known as  castel of Uranienborg .

--Kaitlin H.            

This appears to be a picture without the golden nose, the drunk moose, or the dwarf. ~raine

Alfred Bernhard Nobel
            Alfred Nobel was born on October 21, 1833 in Sweden. His father was an engineer, who worked in St. Petersburg, Russia. When he became successful, he was able to bring his family to live with him. This is where Alfred Nobel grew up. He was very well educated, and by the age of seventeen, he was fluent in five languages. His first interests were actually literature and poetry, not science. Nobel’s father did approve of his interest in poetry, so he was sent abroad to study chemical engineering. He studied in Germany, France, Sweden, and the United States over a two-year period.
            While he was in France, he studied a chemical called nitroglycerine, which was highly explosive, but too difficult to control. He thought that it could be very useful in construction, if there was a way to safely detonate it. In 1864, Nobel’s brother was killed by nitroglycerin during an experiment in Sweden. The authorities thought it was too dangerous, so they forced Nobel to conduct his experiments in a remote area. To make nitroglycerin safer, he added other components to it. He found a way to put it into a paste form that could be shaped to fit into drilling holes. Nobel got a patent for his invention, and called it dynamite. He also invented a detonator which allowed the explosives to be ignited from a safe distance. This made him very wealthy and famous. Before died, Alfred Nobel left a large portion of his money to the foundation of the Nobel Prize, which is a very prestigious award to this day.
--Sam A.

  Enrico Fermi was born in Rome, Italy in 1901.  He studied at the University of Pisa.  He became a professor of theoretical physics at the university of Rome.  Fermi received the Nobel Prize in 1938 for "his discovery of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for the discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons." Fermi moved to the University of Chicago to become a part of the first major step in constructing the atomic bomb. He helped in the construction of the nuclear reactor. His death occurred in 1942, and a number of science awards and institutions have been made in his honor.

--Tessa H.

William Harvey (1578-1657) was the first man to totally prove and describe systemic circulation and the property of blood being pumped to the body by the heart.  Many people of his time thought that food was converted into blood by the liver. Harvey knew this was not right because of his observations of human and animal dissections. He would watch the action of the heart in fish and small animals, and proved that the heart pumps blood throughout the body.  By doing this, he also found out about veins, and correctly identified them by restricting blood flow. He believed that the heart pushed blood throughout the body through contractions of the heart, and even published a book on his findings in 1628, called De Motu Cordis.  William Harvey is thought to be one of the biggest medical leaders of his time, and contributed to the advancement of understanding the body.

--Karlie C.

 John Dalton (9/6/1766-6/27/1844) was born into a Quaker family in northern England. At the age of 15, he joined his brother in running a Quaker school. Soon after, in 1793 Dalton moved to Manchester and became a mathematics and natural philosophy teacher at “New College”.  Soon he started keeping a meteorological diary, in which he recorded over 200,000 observations, and started studying and doing research on color blindness.

                What Dalton is most famous for is his work on atomic theory. He came up with five main points. Although small aspects are wrong, the cores of them are still true. They are: Elements are made of extremely small particles called atoms. Atoms of a given element are identical in size, mass, and other properties; atoms of different elements differ in size, mass, and other properties. Atoms cannot be subdivided, created, or destroyed. Atoms of different elements combine in simple whole-number ratios to form chemical compounds. In chemical compounds, atoms are combined, separated, or rearranged. John Dalton died in Manchester, recording his last meteorological observation the night of his death. Today, Dalton is one of the many people we thank for what we know about atomic theory.

--Devyn Y.

   In the Austrian Empire on June 28 1856 Nikola Tesla was born.  Nikola went on to study at many schools and studied alternating currents. He later then went to Prague where he attended the Charles-Ferdinand University and it was here where he was influence by Ernst Mach. Then he moved to Budapest where he helped create the first loudspeaker. During this time he also created the induction motor but this is questioned because ideas of this idea had already been created by Galileo Ferraris. Other inventions he created are a machine for inducing sleep, invented a cordless gas discharge lamp, and transmitted electromagnetic energy without wires, building the first radio transmitter. His biggest invention is the Tesla generator. Even with all these inventions he died a poor man on January 7 1943.

--Thomas O.

Perhaps one of the lesser known collaborators on the Manhattan Project, it was Szilárd who worked on the idea of the nuclear chain reaction, the process which allowed the Atomic bomb to be developed. He was also the man who initiated the Manhattan Project, writing to President Roosevelt to urge him to develop these weapons, as he believed the Germans were researching something similar. While he abhorred the use of violence, having let the genie out of the bottle, Szilárd has contributed to the dawn of the nuclear age, and has changed the world dramatically.

--Seth H.

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