Tuesday, May 31, 2011

'Cause you're about to eat my bubbles!


Unless you know my attitude on Seagulls...the references here are a little [read: A LOT] opaque. Nonetheless, I encourage anyone tuning into raineworld to watch the embedded Youtube video Jellyfish. It's absolutely excellent. It's done by Steven Haddock *smirk* of the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute and the images are beautiful.

Anyway, watch. And be amazed. The video link.

Thursday, May 26, 2011

That that is is

One last hurrah. One final moment in the sun. And one last push to the bitter end.

One extra credit assignment.


One topic of your choosing related to chemistry. Find it. One that you liked; or one we didn't have time to present--like moles, gases, the nucleus, pH, dimensional analysis. Tell me why you liked it. Tell me about the subject from YOUR perspective. Tell me the details of the subject with references. So, tell me the who, the what, the why, the hows. How long? Hmmm. One cover page with your name and class and date and subject discussed. Two pages of information. And one page of references. so, that makes four. Double spaced. 12 point. Inch margins. Use MLA format.You'll need to email it to me as an attachment.

One more...one last thing...one of things that I shouldn't have to say...but somehow feel compelled to...DO NOT CUT & PASTE. Just sayin. 

It's due Friday June 3rd. By the end of the witching hour. It's worth up to 40 points.

Good luck & have fun.


Friday, May 20, 2011


A pharmaceutical chemist is one who works with variety of natural and synthetic materials. Such as beverages, fragrance, cosmetics, even food products, to find out what and why things happen when elements are altered. A pharmaceutical chemist is enthusiastic to explore and create new innovations to products. The goal of a chemist is to assess the chemical and physical properties of a variety of materials in an effort to investigate, understand and apply these concepts to consumer and medicinal products.
Job Responsibilities
A pharmaceutical chemist conducts research on, analyzes, and experiments with, substances for many purposes, including product development, quantitative analysis and process applications. A pharmaceutical chemists’ goal is usually to develop and improve products.
 Pharmaceutical chemists also analyze natural and synthetic materials to determine their chemical and physical makeup. They do this by using a variety of scientific techniques. The chemist may also provoke changes in the composition of the materials that he is working with by expending a variety of measures including the introduction or elimination of light and heat, a mixture of different chemical makeup and more. The chemist then communicates with his colleagues and compares their research with his own.
Job Opportunities
A prospective pharmaceutical chemist may find work within a variety of industries including pharmaceutical, food, beverage, cosmetic and consumer products. Many recruitment firms specialize in the professional placement of pharmaceutical chemists.
To be successful within the role of a pharmaceutical chemist, a candidate must be equipped, with an extremely high level of initiative and eager to explore and create new innovations, as the goal of a chemist is to find out what and why things happen when elements are altered. The chemist must also be detail oriented, able to perform multiple tasks at a time, work well within a team environment, but must also, however, be equally as effective independently. They need strong interpersonal and communication skills, they need to possess exceptional problem-solving skills and need a very strong knowledge of mathematics (algebra, calculus and statistic) and how they are applied. A pharmaceutical chemist candidate must possess a bachelor degree in chemistry or in a related scientific field of study. They must also have a minimum of one year of laboratory experience.

 Pharmaceutical Chemist Job Description | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/about_5296699_pharmaceutical-chemist-job-description.html#ixzz1MeBjJvrV

Atomic Number: 99                                                                       
Atomic Weight: 252
Melting Point: 1133 K (860°C or 1580°F)
Boiling Point: Unknown
Density: Unknown
Phase at Room Temperature: Solid
Element Classification: Metal
Period Number: 7    Group Number: none    Group Name: Actinide
Radioactive and Artificially Produced
What's in a name? Named after the scientist Albert Einstein.
Say what? Einsteinium is pronounced as ine-STINE-i-em.

History and Uses:
The element Einsteinium is a man-made element that  was discovered by a team of scientists led by Albert Ghiorso in 1952 this is a cool element because not only is it named after Albert Einstein but while studying the radioactive debris produced by the detonation of the first hydrogen bomb (too cool). The Isotope they discovered, einsteinium, has a half-life of about 20 days and was produced by combining 15 neutrons with uranium, which then underwent seven beta decays (yes I know what this all means). Today, einsteinium is produced though a lengthy chain of nuclear reactions that involves bombarding each isotope in the chain with neutrons and then allowing the resulting isotope to undergo beta decay. Einsteinium is classified as an element in the Actinide series as one of the "Rare Earth Elements" which can be located in Group 3 elements of the Periodic Table and in the 6th and 7th periods. The Rare Earth Elements are of the Lanthanide and Actinide series. Most of the elements in the Actinide series are synthetic or man-made. Since only small amounts of einsteinium have ever been produced, it currently has no uses outside of basic scientific research.


By: Keera Tucker

Yttrium is the coolest element for many reasons, but mainly just because it is called yttrium.  Yttrium is a rare, soft, silvery transition metal.  it has a boiling point of 3340 degrees celsius, and a melting point of 1525 degrees celsius. Yttrium is mainly used in alloys, but also reacts well with hydrogen, forming hydrogen gas, and yttrium hydroxide.  Water soluble compounds of yttrium are toxic, however non-soluble compounds aren't toxic.  It increases the strength of aluminum and magnesium alloys.  Yttrium90 is also used in the treatment of cancer

By: Ian Mcphie

Job: Fermentation Scientist (Bio-fuels)

Role: Responsible for the design, optimization, and establishment of commercial fermentation processes for the production of bio-fuels. Responsible for collecting, analyzing, and providing insight and assurance on the experimental fermentation aspects of bio-fuels. Deal with bacteria, yeast, and filamentous fungi. Overall aim is to ensure that a sustainable technology pipeline is developed to support bio-fuel.

Key needs: Collect and analyze data from fermentation scaled experimental program. Coordinate and oversee all aspects of developing a commercial process fermentation and or process. Design and execute experimental programs. Work in a team environment. Participate in and eventually lead projects to develop products and processes for bio-fuel.

Education: Minimum B.S. in related field

Experience and job requirements: Experience in fermentation plant operations, process development or applied research. Experience in operation and management. Solid understating of key drivers of fermentation.

Skills: Value creator, Great Partner, and Develop Others

Element Extra Credit:

Element: Oxygen

It is a Group 16 element. While about one fifth of the atmosphere is oxygen gas, the atmosphere of Mars contains only about 0.15% oxygen. Oxygen is the third most abundant element found in the sun, and it plays a part in the carbon-nitrogen cycle, one process responsible for stellar energy production. Oxygen in excited states is responsible for the bright red and yellow-green colours of the aurora. About two thirds of the human body, and nine tenths of water, is oxygen. The gas is colorless, odourless, and tasteless. Liquid and solid oxygen are pale blue (see picture above) and strongly paramagnetic (contains unpaired electrons).

Table: basic information about and classifications of oxygen.
Name: Oxygen
Symbol: O
Atomic number: 8
Atomic weight: 15.9994 (3) [see notes g r]
Standard state: gas at 298 K
CAS Registry ID: 7782-44-7
Group in periodic table: 16
Group name: Chalcogen
Period in periodic table: 2
Block in periodic table: p-block
Colour: colourless as a gas, liquid is pale blue
Classification: Non-metallic
Ozone (O3) is another allotrope of oxygen. It is formed from electrical discharges or ultraviolet light acting on O2. It is an important component of the atmosphere (in total amounting to the equivalent of a layer about 3 mm thick at ordinary pressures and temperatures) which is vital in preventing harmful ultraviolet rays of the sun from reaching the earth's surface. Aerosols in the atmosphere have a detrimental effect on the ozone layer. Large holes in the ozone layer are forming over the polar regions and these are increasing in size annually. Paradoxically, ozone is toxic! Undiluted ozone is bluish in color. Liquid ozone is bluish-black, and solid ozone is violet-black.

Oxygen is very reactive and oxides of most elements are known. It is essential for respiration of all plants and animals and for most types of combustion.

By: KayLee Roemmich

I decided to pick the element Osmium or Os on the periodic table.

Atomic Number: 76

Transition Metal

Atomic Weight: 190.23

Melting Point: 3033 C or 5491 F

Boiling Point: 5012 C or 9054 F

Density: 22.57 grams per cubic centimeter

Period Number: 6

Group Number: 8

Solid at Room Temperature

It’s the densest natural element, being twice as dense as lead.  It is found as an alloy in platinum and nickel ores because it is a part of the platinum family. Osmium is hard, brittle, and a blue-gray or blue-black color. And because it is an alloy it can be used in fountain pen tips, electrical contacts, record player needles (record players???), or other durable applications.

Osmium was first discovered along with Iridium by chemist Smithson Tennant in 1803.  Osmium is very hard to make. However powdered Osmium in the air can cause toxic osmium tetroxide which can lead to lung and eye damage.  Osmium = Awesome!

The chemistry job I chose is a Catalyst. I think it’s pretty cool because they make reactions happen!  Catalysts make reactions happen faster, and in a more “selective manner”.  Leading to a more efficient experiment.  They allow for things to be less wasteful, being a very important part to the chemistry world.

Catalyst are very important because they deal with the part of the experiment that changes, the part where things happen, if you can do this effectively and with good results, you’ve done your job well as a catalyst. There are many different types of catalysts which included and not limited to Energy, Environment, Heterogeneous, Homogeneous, etc.   This science can be very exact and this job must be done with accuracy.

You can work as a catalyst at really any major chemical facility, because anything that has to do with reactions needs a good catalyst. Those who enter this field however need to be patient and detail oriented for obvious reasons.  You can have different levels of education for this job, the field is split between a Ph.D, masters, and bachelors degree.

A catalyst would be a great career.


By: Aubree Payne

Organic Chemistry

Is All Around Us

Organic chemistry is that branch of chemistry that deals with the structure, properties, and reactions of compounds that contain carbon. It is a highly creative science. Chemists in general and organic chemists in particular can create new molecules never before proposed which, if carefully designed, may have important properties for the betterment of the human experience. In terms of Ph.D. population, organic chemistry is the largest chemistry discipline, in both total numbers, annual Ph.D. graduates, and in annual production.
Beyond our bodies' DNA, peptides, proteins, and enzymes, organic compounds are all around us. They are central to the economic growth of the U.S., in industries such as the rubber, plastics, fuel, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, detergent, coatings, dyestuffs, and agrichemicals industries. The very foundations of biochemistry, biotechnology, and medicine are built on organic compounds and their role in life processes. Most all of the modern, high tech materials are composed, at least in part, of organic compounds. Clearly, organic chemistry is critically important to our high standard of living.
Organic chemists at all degree levels are found in all those industries that depend on R&D, working on projects from fundamental discovery to highly applied product development. The foundation of the pharmaceutical industry is the large pool of highly skilled organic chemists. For example, nature may provide a molecule such as a complex antibiotic, an antitumor agent, or a replacement for a hormone such as insulin; organic chemists determine the structure of this newly discovered molecule and then modify it to enhance the desired activity and specificity of action, while decreasing undesired side effects. Indeed, organic chemists have produced a wonderful myriad of highly successful products to fight human diseases.
There is tremendous excitement and challenge in synthesizing a molecule never before made synthetically or found in nature. Tailoring the properties of that molecule via chemical synthesis to produce beneficial effects to meet the needs of the present and future human existence is both challenging and rewarding.
When asked to comment about his work, John Hyatt, senior research associate at Eastman Chemical Company said, "I think of new ways to solve old problems." Hyatt specializes in organic chemistry research and the development of naturally-occurring compounds. He looks for methods to synthesize organic compounds which will prove useful in medicine, nutrition, and materials science. Often these compounds already are known to be of significant commercial value; Hyatt's job is to develop new and improved synthetic routes and to find more efficient methods for the isolation and purification of naturally occurring substances of commercial value. Hyatt also designs and carries out synthesis of isotopically-tagged versions of reasonably complex target molecules. His work is just one example of the wide variety of exciting opportunities inherent in organic chemistry.
Is About Challenges and Success

As a senior research associate at Procter & Gamble, Kelly McDow-Dunham has applied her background in organic chemistry to the synthesis of drugs that act against osteoarthritis, a degenerative disease in which enzymes attack and break down the bone cartilage. McDow- Dunham's work has involved synthesizing enzyme inhibitors, small organic molecules that deactivate the enzymes and prevent them from attacking the cartilage. In this type of work, once the synthesis is accomplished, a molecule is given to biochemists, pharmacologists, and toxicologists to test for activity, mode of biologic action, and safety. Often, a drug candidate is not usable for one reason or another?for example, it could turn out to be toxic?and chemists have to work to modify the structure, hoping to improve the biological properties. "Characteristics of these compounds have to be right," says McDow-Dunham. "Each compound may have some properties that are right, and other characteristics that are not suitable. So, organic chemists have to make modifications in the structure of the molecule to optimize them. It's very challenging and difficult, but that's what makes the work interesting," says McDow-Dunham.
Organic chemists often say that in addition to making the work interesting, the challenge of finding a process or product that works in the midst of numerous ideas that do not pan out is often a learning experience. Kenetha Stanton, associate research scientist at Procter & Gamble says, "Often, we either can't make the compound we want, or a compound that we do make doesn't have the activity that we had envisioned. When this occurs, we've at least discovered that a certain class of compounds won't work for us. We can move on and know that we don't need to look at that particular group any more. That allows us to focus our time and energy elsewhere. In that sense, what seems like a failure is really a kind of success in disguise."
Goes Inside and Outside the Lab

Organic chemists spend time in the lab but also work outside the lab studying scientific literature, doing library research, collaborating with colleagues, writing reports, preparing publications, and peer-reviewing research manuscripts. Computers are playing an ever-increasing role in simplifying these tasks. Depending on education, skills, employer, specific projects, and career track, organic chemists may be involved in a variety of tasks including carrying out procedures at the bench, designing and directing the research efforts of a group of scientists, and managing research facilities.
Senior principal scientist Joel Barrish at Bristol-Myers Squibb does some of his own laboratory work in cardiovascular and immunology research when possible. However, most of his day is spent carrying out those duties associated with his role as group/project leader in drug discovery research. These responsibilities include coordinating the synthetic chemistry efforts of chemists in his group and collaborating with professionals working on the project in areas outside of his group such as computer-aided design, X-ray crystallography, biochemistry, metabolism and pharmacokinetics, process research chemistry, and regulatory affairs. Barrish says that his Ph.D. in chemistry and seven years of work experience in this field prepared him for his current position. He comments, "I would like to continue on the managerial/scientific track in industry, leading drug discovery programs."
Many organic chemists, such as Hyatt and Barrish, choose to remain active in the technical end of chemistry. Others apply their knowledge and skills outside the laboratory holding positions that include those in sales, marketing, and law. Many organic chemists work in academia, holding positions that include undergraduate and graduate teaching and research. The academic area provides the opportunity for the very best to explore new areas of organic research.
McDow-Dunham attended law school while working as a scientist at P&G and is now pursuing her interests in patent law with the company. "I like the idea of being an advocate for scientists." Her goal as a patent attorney is to work with scientists to obtain proprietary protection for the compounds that they design. She adds, "My background in organic chemistry will help me work with other scientists in my new role because I know how to talk their language." This is an important aspect of organic chemistry; its central nature can open many alternative career paths.
Is a Puzzle Leading To New Experiences

Whether working inside or outside the laboratory, organic chemists compare their work in the field to solving puzzles. Stanton suggests, "You keep getting little bits of information here and there from the different tests and experiments that you run. You find out what works and what doesn't work along the way and you learn how to fit all the pieces together to get the target you're looking for."
David Eickhoff, associate scientist at Procter & Gamble, makes this analogy of his work: It is wanting to get from New York to Los Angeles. "There are an infinite number of routes. Some are better than others because of things out of your control, such as an inaccessible bridge along the way. So you back up and find another route in order to complete the journey."
Eickhoff continues, "Everyday is a new experience working in organic chemistry. There are well-defined rules, and there's just enough information that you're not just spinning your wheels. But it's not completely mapped out. There's always something new. Organic chemistry is a wonderful blend of what's known, what's not yet known, and how to apply this information to discover new knowledge. There's enough not yet known to keep it interesting and full of opportunity."
Working Description

Organic chemistry is the science of designing, synthesizing, characterizing, and developing applications for molecules that contain carbon. Organic chemists create and study organic compounds, the reactions that produce them, and their chemical and physical properties. They create and explore new uses for new or existing organic materials. They carry out synthesis reactions and isolations in a laboratory environment using sophisticated instruments such as nuclear magnetic resonance; gas and liquid chromatography; and infrared, ultraviolet, and visible spectroscopy. Most of the instruments are computer driven and controlled, so computer literacy is required. Complex molecules may require 3D computer modeling capability to aid in visualizing the domains of complex molecules that require synthetic modification.
Working Conditions

Most organic chemists will find themselves working in modern, clean, well-lighted, and safe research/development facilities equipped with up-to-date equipment and instrumentation designed to facilitate efficient project goal achievement. Individuals work on a team, and interactions with its members provide a valuable learning opportunity. Although the Ph.D. chemist will usually have over-all responsibility for the project, everyone's ideas and input will be valued and utilized.
Bachelor's degree chemists will spend most of their time working at the bench. However, time will also be spent with data recording, report writing, interactions with people and disciplines outside your team. Computers greatly aid the collection, recording, managing, and analyzing of data, and even report writing. More and more, computers bring the outside world's technical literature right into the laboratory, and they also are invaluable in providing computer aided design techniques for constructing new molecules and modifying existing ones. There will be no shortage of the latest in instrumentation to facilitate the work, both in industry and in academia.
Places of Employment

Organic chemists at all levels are employed by pharmaceutical, biotech, chemical, consumer product, petroleum, and other industries from small to very large. Research and development is the primary opportunity in industry. Research universities that grant Ph.D.s have excellent teaching and research opportunities for Ph.D. chemists, many of whom will have post-doctoral training. Liberal arts colleges and universities also employ mostly Ph.D. chemists where excellent teaching and research are encouraged and rewarded. Government labs also employ organic chemists.
Personal Characteristics

Like any other discipline, organic chemistry requires that the practitioner possess and cultivate a set of desired personal characteristics often called "What Counts" factors. These include creativity and innovation, technical mastery, problem solving ability, initiative and follow-through, leadership, ability to work with others (teamwork), and good oral and written communication skills. Developing and constantly strengthening these abilities will help you get a job, keep a job, and lead to a successful and satisfying career anywhere you are employed.
Education and Training

In R&D, most bachelor-level organic chemists work "at the bench" in a laboratory setting, often working as part of a team with masters and doctoral scientists or engineers. The higher the degree, the greater the responsibility, so the Ph.D scientist will usually have over-all responsibility for the project's content and direction. But many bachelor's chemists work independently and all can advance in responsibility and pay commensurate with acquired experience.
A benefit provided by most companies is paid tuition for the bachelor's or master's chemist who wishes to obtain a higher degree while working full-time. What is learned while pursuing that higher degree, coupled with the practical job experience, can be the key to more rapid advancement in responsibility and pay.
Job Outlook

Most companies develop products that solve consumer or customer problems and many of the solutions are based on organic molecules. This is especially true in pharmaceutical and consumer products, but also in all the other industrial areas mentioned earlier. Since new sets of problems and opportunities constantly arise, organic chemists are in demand to synthesize and produce the molecules that solve those problems. Consequently, the job market for organic chemists is usually strong, again reflecting that organic compounds and chemists are a critical factor in so many varied industries.
Teaching opportunities for Ph.D. chemists each year are available, but the competition is quite stiff. Most research universities and liberal arts colleges require the Ph.D. degree. However, some four- and two-year colleges hire master's level chemists for teaching and limited research opportunities.
There are more than 1300 biotechnology firms and they, along with large companies, are hiring all degree levels of organic chemists. Government laboratories also present opportunity for all levels of organic chemists.
Salary Information

To find out what a person in this type of position earns in your area of the country, please refer to the ACS Salary Comparator. Use of the ACS Salary Comparator is a member-only benefit. General information about salaries in chemical professions can be obtained through published survey results.
For More Information

ACS Division of Organic Chemistry
American Chemical Society
1155 Sixteenth Street, NW
Washington, DC 20036
http://portal.acs.org/portal/PublicWebSite/copyright/index.htm cited source

Atomic Number: 88
Atomic Weight: 226
Melting Point: 973 K (700°C or 1292°F)
Boiling Point: 1413 K (1140°C or 2084°F)
Density: 5 grams per cubic centimeter
Phase at Room Temperature: Solid
Element Classification: Metal
Period Number: 7    Group Number: 2    Group Name: Alkaline Earth Metal
What's in a name? From the Latin word for ray, radius.
Say what? Radium is pronounced as RAY-di-em.
History and Uses:
Radium was discovered by Marie Sklodowska Curie, a Polish chemist, and Pierre Curie, a French chemist, in 1898. Marie Curie obtained radium from pitchblende, a material that contains uranium, after noticing that unrefined pitchblende was more radioactive than the uranium that was separated from it. She reasoned that pitchblende must contain at least one other radioactive element. Curie needed to refine several tons of pitchblende in order to obtain tiny amounts of radium and polonium, another radioactive element discovered by Curie. One ton of uranium ore contains only about 0.14 grams of radium. Today, radium can be obtained as a byproduct of refining uranium and is usually sold as radium chloride (RaCl2) or radium bromide (RaBr2) and not as a pure material.
Radium's most stable isotope, radium-226, has a half-life of about 1600 years. It decays into radon-222 through alpha decay or into lead-212 by ejecting a carbon-14 nucleus.
The Curie, a unit used to describe the activity of a radioactive substance, is based on radium-226. It is equal to the number of atoms in a one gram sample of radium-226 that will decay in one second, or 37,000,000,000 decays per second.
Radium had been used to make self-luminous paints for watches, aircraft instrument dials and other instrumentation, but has largely been replaced by cobalt-60, a less dangerous radioactive source. A mixture of radium and beryllium will emit neutrons and is used as a neutron source. Radium is used to produce radon, a radioactive gas used to treat some types of cancer. A single gram of radium-226 will produce 0.000l milliliters of radon a day.
Radium is about one million times more active than uranium. The lab notebooks used by the Curies are too highly contaminated to be safely handled today.
Estimated Crustal Abundance: 9×10-7 milligrams per kilogram
Estimated Oceanic Abundance: 8.9×10-11 milligrams per liter
Number of Stable Isotopes: 0   (View all isotope data)
Ionization Energy: 5.279 eV
Oxidation State: +2
Electron Shell Configuration:
2s2        2p6                   
3s2        3p6        3d10           
4s2        4p6        4d10        4f14   
5s2        5p6        5d10           
6s2        6p6                   

By: Kate Berrie

I have picked to talk about being a pharmacists. Pharmacists have a few different options to choose from once they get their degree. They can go work for lots of different companies help the research, manufacture, and sell to hospitals or other pharmacists. In this career choice they would be helping to try and prefect the chemical make up of the different drugs that they are making. If a pharmacist does not choose this path then they can go work in a hospital or start their on pharmacy. If they start their own pharmacy then they will distribute the drugs prescribed by peoples Dr and answer any questions they have about the medication, the side effects of the chemicals of the drugs, what are the chemicals doing, how it helps their problem and things like that. They will keep a record of all the drugs coming in and going out of the pharmacy. They will also tell Dr's in their local area about new drug that come out. I think that it is a pretty cool career choice.

By: James Anderson

Careers in Chemistry
Polymer chemists develop polymers so they can be used to make ingredients for products with unique physical and chemical properties. They manipulate large, complex molecules and capitalize on the connections between their molecular structure and the properties that make them useful. Polymer products can be lightweight, hard, strong, and flexible and have special thermal, electrical, and optical characteristics; they include products from the fiber, communication, packaging, and transportation industries. Polymer chemistry touches many scientific disciplines and is vital in fields that develop products such as plastics and synthetic fibers; agricultural chemicals; paints and adhesives; and biomedical applications such as artificial skin, prosthetics, and the nicotine patch that helps smokers overcome their smoking habit. It is estimated that as many as 50% of all chemists will work in polymer science in some capacity during their careers. Because they work in a field that is so broad, polymer chemists must be flexible and be able to interact and communicate with others in a variety of disciplines.  Based on what degree they get these chemists can earn 68,000 to 114,000 dollars a year.
Copper is one of the most important metals. Copper is reddish with a bright metallic luster. It is malleable, ductile, and a good conductor of heat and electricity (second only to silver in electrical conductivity). Its alloys, brass and bronze, are very important. Money and gun metals also contain copper.  The most important compounds are the oxide and the sulphate.  The discovery of copper dates from prehistoric times. There are reports of copper beads dating back to 9000BC found in Iraq. Methods for refining copper from its ores were discovered around 5000BC and a 1000 or so years later it was being used in pottery in North Africa.                           Part of the reason for it being used so early is simply that it is relatively easy to shape. However it is somewhat too soft for many tools and around 5000 years ago it was discovered that when copper is mixed with other metals the resulting alloys are harder than copper it. As examples, brass is a mixture of copper and zinc while bronze is a mixture of copper and tin.

 By: Jack Tyrell

Neon was discovered in 1898 by two British scientists, Sir William Ramsay and Morris Travers, shortly after they discovered Krypton. Neon was discovered through the study of liquefied. Neon is the 4th abundant element in the universe but only is 0.0018% of the Earths of atmosphere is neon. Neon’s atomic number is 10 and its atomic number is 20.1797. Neon is categorized as a noble gas. Neon received its name from the Greek which means new. Natural neon is a mix of three isotopes and there are five other unstable isotopes of neon are known. Neon is used to make neon signs. Neon and helium are used to make gas lasers. Neon is used in lightning arrestors, television tubes, high-voltage indicators, and wave meter tubes. Liquid neon is used as a cryogenic refrigerant, as it has over 40 times the refrigerating capacity per unit volume than liquid helium and over three times that of liquid hydrogen. Neon is a rare gaseous element. It is present in the atmosphere to the extent of 1 part per 65,000 of air. Neon is obtained by liquefaction of air and separation using fractional distillation. Neon is colorless, tasteless, and odorless gas. But NEON IS A VERY COOL ELEMENT!!
Density (g/cc): 1.204 (@ -246°C)
Atomic Volume (cc/mol): 16.8
Covalent Radius (pm): 71
Specific Heat (@20°C J/g mol): 1.029
Evaporation Heat (kJ/mol): 1.74
Debye Temperature (K): 63.00
Pauling Negativity Number: 0.0
First Ionizing Energy (kJ/mol): 2079.4
Oxidation States: n/a
Lattice Structure: Face-Centered Cubic
Lattice Constant (Å): 4.430
Electron Configuration: [He]2s22p6

By: Rima Saif

Chemical engineering:
Chemical engineering is the part of engineering that has to do with the construction, design, and operation of machines and plants plants that perform chemical reactions.  They make useful products, and solve practical problems.  Chemical engineers need to know how to do math, physics, and economics to be able to solve the problems they are faced with.  The difference between chemical engineering and other engineering jobs, is that they use chemistry as well as the other engineering techniques.  Some chemical engineers invent new processes, some plan and operate facilities.  Some construct instruments and facilities.  Some have developed pretty much everything you can imagine.  In 2006 The US Department of Labor said that there was 30,000 chemical engineers in the US.  At the time this survey was taken, the average hourly wage was $39.23 per hour but could range from $24.07 to $57.05 an hour.  The median annual salary was $78,860.  80% of chemical engineers made $50,060 to $118,670.  An entry-level job in chemical engineering usually requires a bachelor's degreein engineering.  A master's degree is also helpful.  Engineers that work with the public need to have a license. 

The electron configuration of this atom is 1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d10 4s2p6d10f14 5s2p6d4 6s2
Tungsten has 74 elevrons, 110 neutrons, and 74 protons. The Atomic Mass Average is 183.85.  The boiling point is 5655 degrees C or 10211 degrees F. It was discovered in 1783.  It was discovered by Fausto and Juan Jose de Elhuyar.  It is used widely in the electronic industry.  When Tungsten is pure it costs $11 oer 100g.  When it is in bulk it costs $2.95 per 100g.    You cannot find tungsten free in nature.  Tungsten has 33 isotopes.  Their half lives are known with the mass numbers from 158 to 190.  Tungsten is extracted from sheelite, wolframite, and  some other minerals.  Tungsten is classified as a transition metal which are located in group 3-12.

By: Brooke Maughan

Zymology is the scientific term for fermentation. It deals with the biochemical processes involved in fermentation
A zymologist is someone who deals with learning how to purposely fermentate and use that ability to brew beer, wine, cider, mead, and  perry. French Chemist "Loius Pastuer," was the first zymologist when in 1857 he connected yeast to fermentation. fermentation never occurs without simultaneous organization, development and multiplication of cells.
Fermentation can be simply defined as the conversion of sugar molecules into ethanol and carbon dioxide from yeast.

Process: The process you see below is how sugar molecules convert to ethanol and carbon dioxide.

                                           C6H12O6 => 2CO2 + 2C2H5OH

Salary: Zymologists may make up to $90,000 yearly, most range from the $45,000 to $75,000 pay zone.

Jobs: Jobs that require zymology, or in other words, fermentating sugar molecules into alchohol, are usually needed at the actually breweries and wine making facilities. Often though, the zymologists learn how to do it, then show the actual makers, and thus, alcoholic drinks are made.  

Periodic Symbol: Mn

Atomic Number: 25

Type: Metal

Known As: a Free Element

Main Uses: Manganese is Mainly used as treatments for rust and corrosion prevention on steel. Depending on the oxidation state,
manganese ions have various colors and are used industrially as pigments. Another cool fact about manganese, is that when it oxidizes
and turns to manganese dioxide, it can be used as a cathode meaning "electron acceptor." On the flip side, manganese can cause harm to animals
it may cause a poisonous syndrome in mammals which causes neurological damage. By large amounts, all it takes is a simple inhalation of the element ans it can cause massive problems.

Characteristics: Manganese is a silvery-gray metal resembling iron. It is very hard, but somewhat brittle, difficult to use, but easy to oxidize. Manganese is also paramagnetic.

Chemical Property: The most common oxidation states of manganese are +2, +3, +4, +6 and +7, though oxidation states from −3 to +7 are observed. Mn2+ often competes with Mg2 in biological systems. Manganese compounds where manganese is in oxidation state +7, which are restricted to the unstable oxide Mn2O7 and compounds of the intensely purple permanganate anion MnO4−, are powerful oxidizing agents Compounds with oxidation states +5 (blue) and +6 (green) are strong oxidizing agents and are vulnerable to disproportion.

Occurence: Manganese makes up about 1000 ppm (0.1%) of the Earth's Crust, making it the 12th most abundant element there.   

By: Branden Estrada

Job Title: Computational Chemist

            Computational Chemists use computers to solve chemical problems. Calculate properties of molecules, and also calculate the structures of these molecules. Computational Chemistry is useful because you can use it to find out things about materials that are too expensive to get or too hard to find. Most Computational Chemists use the Schrödinger equation to solve these equations and create these models.
            The average salary for Computational Chemists in 2010 was $86,684.
Interesting fact
            My uncle is a Computational Chemist.

Pt 2 – Interesting element
            Plutonium is a radioactive element with the symbol PU and atomic number 94. It has a silver-white appearance and tarnishes when exposed to air. When exposed to humid air, it can form hydrates and oxides that expand the Plutonium up to 70%. It can also flake off and spontaneously ignite. It is also a radioactive poison. The most stable isotope of Pu (Plutonium-244) has a half-life of 80 million years. The most important isotope is Pu-239, the isotope most useful as fissile material for making nuclear weapons.
            Plutonium was first synthesized in 1940 by a team of scientists at UC Berkeley by bombarding U-238 with deuterons. Plutonium was important to product during WWII for use in the Manhattan Project. Both Trinity (the test bomb) and Fat Man (dropped on Nagasaki) were Plutonium based.
Interesting facts about Pu
Plutonium tastes like metal.
Plutonium dust is as toxic as nerve gas.
Plutonium has been used to power pacemakers.
Both Voyager spacecraft use Plutonium power sources that still operate to this day.

By: Nadir Terkali
aurum est potestas - Gold is power
Au - Gold
Atomic Number: 79
Atomic Mass: 196.96655
Melting Point: 1064.43 °C (1337.5801 K, 1947.9741 °F)
Boiling Point: 2807.0 °C (3080.15 K, 5084.6 °F)
Number of Protons/Electrons: 79
Number of Neutrons: 118
Classification: Transition Metal
Crystal Structure: Cubic
Density @ 293 K: 19.32 g/cm3
            Gold was discovered around 3000 B.C. and has been treasured ever since. it's English name comes from the old English word geolo which means yellow. It's symbol Au comes from the Latin word aurum which means gold. It is used in electronics, jewelry, and was also used for currency. Almost all peoples on the Earth treasured gold, making it one of the most expensive commodities today.
            Gold is a very malleable substance, making it able to be hammered into amazingly thin sheets. For example, some statues are plated with this super thin gold, making it much less expensive to make. Gold is very conductive as well. Both of these qualities of gold make it a good candidate for use in computers: electrical conductivity and malleability. Gold is one of the most amazing elements this Earth has on it. 

Job title: Military chemist: positions involving chemistry in the military Initial website source: Google and chemistry.about.com and ehow.com
            This website (chemistry.about.com) was very informative. It laid out a list of chemistry-relation jobs and elaborated into several of them. It also describes how much college you're going to need to get these positions. Most of the positions require a four-year degree involving a chemistry minor or major. ehow.com specified everything needed to become a military chemist.
Description:  Military chemists are involved in laboratory work, decontamination, and biological 'activities'. In my mind, these chemist's jobs seem like they could involve using and counteracting chemical and biological warfare. Anyone can begin at the lowest levels like assistant work and others, but  chemists with degrees and experience will get more pay and better positions.
Pay:  Depending on how advanced you are and how high rank you are you can make up to $14,688.60 a month (up to $176,000 a year) according to ewhow.com. Obviously, most chemists do not make as much as this. The least advanced make around $15,000 - $20,000 a year.

Actual Job Postings:  jobview.monster.com
Company:  Aerotek Scientific
Basic requirements/information:
Location: Silver Spring, MD Position Type: Full Time Required Education: Doctorate Areas of Expertise Desired: Analytical Chemistry and Good Laboratory Practices

Our client is in search of a Chemist to perform chemical analysis of liquid and/or solid samples for organic, inorganic, and metal substance contents. He/she will be performing testing and evaluation of personal protective equipment against chemical warfare material and toxic industrial chemicals.

- Chromatography Based Analysis
- Organic, Physical and Analytical Chemistry
- Good Laboratory Practices (GLP)
- Hazardous Chemical/Material Training
- Experience with MINICAMS
- Experience working with Chemical Warfare Agents & Toxic Industrial Chemicals

By: Regan Hanson
Additional Information about Food Chemistry:
Food chemistry focuses mainly on deterioration of food and improving food for consumers.  It is very beneficial in developing food and the improving different ways it can be packaged, stored, and distributed.  Food science involved various branches, but chemistry is the essential part of food science.  Food chemists help to improve foods through analyzing various methods, studying the effects of processing on the food, and also testing food in order to see if that food is in accordance with additive and preservative guidelines.  Other typical tasks of a food chemist includes studying the structure and composition of food, searching for flavor factors, help to market food, check raw ingredients , develop inspection operations, and improve the qualities of the products.  Food chemists typically have an undergraduate degree in chemistry and get a master’s in food science.  As a young college student, prospective flavor chemists often keep a tasting notebook in order to learn characteristics of flavor materials.  They then have an internship, and following the internship they may become a certified flavorist. Being involved in the food industry is a very stable job, because people will always need food in order to survive.  Job prospects are extremely bright.  Most food scientists conduct their work in a lab.  Qualities of food and flavor chemists include curiosity, motivation, better-than-average sense of smell and taste, a good odor memory, and creativity.   Food chemistry is truly an art form.

Sources: http://portal.acs.org/, http://www.schoolsintheusa.com/careerprofiles_details.cfm

Additional Information about Strontium:

Strontium has an atomic mass of 87.62 amu.  The melting point of Strontium is 769 degrees Celsius, and the boiling point is 1384 degrees Celsius.  Strontium has 38 protons, 38 electrons, and 50 neutrons.  It has a cubic crystal structure.  Strontium has five energy levels.  The name ‘Strontium’ comes from the Scottish town of Strontian, where Adair Crawford discovered Strontium.  One of the most abundant elements on earth and seawater, Strontium has several useful and non-useful applications.  Some uses for strontium include providing the crimson color for fireworks and flares.  According to Ward Dean MD, people will usually classify strontium as a “highly dangerous, radioactive component of nuclear fallout, produced during atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons in the 1950’s”.  Strontium has contaminated the environment through dairy products and other foods, which then contaminates humans.  Strontium can also cause cancer.  Despite these negative connotations, Strontium can also be used for good such as helping to conquer osteoporosis.  Women who took daily doses of Strontium had fewer bone fractures and had increased their bone density.  Strontium has also been shown to reduce cavities and improve cartilage metablolism in osteoarthritis.

Sources: http://www.chemicalelements.com/elements/sr.html, http://www.worldhealth.net/news/strontium_breakthrough_against_osteoporo/

 By Amy Forbush

 Did you know those rats that sit behind the counter and take forever to get your simple prescriptions actually need some sort of chemistry background and the best ones have a nice history of using chemistry in their schooling. It seems obvious however that they would need to use chemistry in order to fulfill their jobs, considering they need mix to mix chemicals (hey, hey, hey) to make prescriptions.
            Pharmaceutical chemists can work in many ranges of areas. The most common would be the one at your local grocer. However, they also are involved in the manufacturing process where they test and develop new products. Others also work in hospitals, clinics, and rest homes by making sterile solutions or advising the other staff members about new drugs. The pharmacists in the government agencies (the big guys in town) would be the ones inspecting all of these places of resource. Basically they are all here to make sure that we are all safe and protected from the drug world.
            Fun fact: People in this field also have to specialize in nuclear pharmacy (basically they work with radioactive drugs). There are also many other types of pharmacy courses these chemists must undergo including consultant pharmacy and specialized pharmacy (whooo).
            Generally, they work about 43 hours a week, compared to a normal 40 hour work week. Obviously they spend their time hoping for our best safety. As a starting salary they make about $81,000 annually. (quite a nice sum for a starting career) However a more experienced pharmacist can earn up to $130,000 dollars (holy macral). They do get paid to keep us safe though while filling our general prescriptions.

SOURCES: http://flahec.org/hlthcareers/pharm.HTM and http://www.ehow.com/facts_5007587_much-pharmacist-make-annually_.html
By: Kaylee Anderson

Oxygen is of course the coolest element because, personally, I like breathingJ

Name: Oxygen
Symbol: O
Atomic Number: 8
Atomic Mass: 15.9994 amu
Melting Point: -218.4 °C (54.750008 K, -361.12 °F)
Boiling Point: -183.0 °C (90.15 K, -297.4 °F)
Number of Protons/Electrons: 8
Number of Neutrons: 8
Classification: Non-metal
Crystal Structure: Cubic
Density @ 293 K: 1.429 g/cm3
Color: colorless

By: Christina Fenlaw 

A Chemical Engineer applies the use of physical science to form raw
material or chemicals into more useful or valuable forms. Today in the ever
advancing field of engineering chemical engineers are on the technologic
front pioneering things such as nanotechnology, fuel cells, and biomedical
processes. Since most of the elements that we can use are already
classified and well there in todays field its a Chemical engineers job to use
these elements to create things from toothpaste to fuel. Since a Chemical
Engineer works in so many varieties of work and so many degrees the
average salary for a chemical engineer is quite broad it starts at $48,975-
$102,039. A job as a Chemical Engineer is truly a good field to look at
going into since the field is so diverse you can almost always plan on a job.
A Chemical engineer is truly a vital part of our world and everyday life that
is why i decided to research them

Our world truly runs on copper. In todays technologic word most electrical
components contain some amount of copper. Now why is copper used so often and in
so many things? Well the answer is a combination of many things first it is cheap now
im not saying its the best or that its not expensive im just saying that gold may work
better but technology is expensive enough all ready. So what are some properties or
traits of copper? Well it is a ductile metal which means it can be smashed and flattened
without breaking or cracking. It also has a very high thermal and electrical conductivity
this mean that both electricity and head are transferred very well through it hence the
reason it is found in so many places in our electrical society. Pure copper is soft and
malleable when the surface is exposed it has a reddish orange tarnish. Copper is also
used in many alloys. The metal and its different alloys have been used for thousands of
years giving its forming techniques centuries of refinement. In Roman society copper
was mined from Cyprus hence coppers original name Cypruim later shortened to
cuprum. It has different compounds among them is copper(2) salts. This compound
often imparts blue or green colors to minerals such as turquoise and have been used as
ancient paints. Copper has been used for thousands of years for thousands of purposes
just a few of these have been covered as i just briefly scratched the surface of this truly
awesome element

By Bob Dansie 

Everyday millions of women around the world wake up and use different beauty products and makeup on their face.  The majority of makeup is made of different types of chemicals, anything from coal tar, manganese, aluminum powder, you name it.  Now your average bear can’t formulate these different makeup products, but trained cosmetic chemists can. (The chemistry of cosmetics) In fact there are numerous bases used in makeup to form long lasting colors that can remain on a woman’s face for hours upon end. The average cosmetic receives a bachelor’s degree in chemistry and then may go on to train at a cosmetic company where they will later work.  The average cosmetic chemist starts off at an annual wage of $67,000 a year, but wages vary based on the size and success of the company you work for. The success of the products you personally develop also attribute to your average salary. Hours usually range from 8 to 10 hours a day, 5 to 6 days a week, once again varying based on your employer (cosmetic chemists).  Being a cosmetic chemist is a fairly competitive field because there are so many positions to be obtained however it is a field that is continuously growing, and offers a lot of opportunity to those who truly love the field.

Extra Credit Part II- Aluminum!!!
Aluminum is the 13th element on the periodic table. It comes in numerous forms. Aluminum in its purist form however is a silvery- white metal that is non-toxic, non-magnetic and non-sparking, all very desirable traits. It lacks strength and is quite soft.  It is very abundant in the earth’s crust, but not commonly found in nature (Aluminum ).  Where can you find aluminum in your daily life? It is found in many different products: makeup, cans for soda, soup, vegetables etc., a filler in asphalt and concrete, cooking supplies, airplanes (Davyson). The list is endless. There has been several negative links to aluminum; an example would be Alzheimer’s disease (Davyson).  
By: Emma Gillett

more might be forthcoming

Helium, how art thou?

Helium, as you should know, is number 2 on the periodic table and has an atomic weight of 4.00260. The discovery of helium started with Isaac Newton, at this point what didn’t?, who was able to split light using a prism. From there various people with annoying names continued to discover various elements using this basic technique combined with others to discover elements by observing the spectrums the elements light produced.  Pierre Janssen discovered helium in 1868 when looking at prominences in the sun's corona; for this reason it was named helium, coming from the Greek word for sun, helios. However, helium was not accepted and understood to be an element until 1895 when William Ramsay isolated it. Here are some of its properties and attributes know to man:  melting point: 0.95 K   (-272.2 ⁰C) and boiling point: 4.2 K   (-268.9⁰C).  It has 2 shells and an electron configuration of 1s2.  It is a colorless, inert, odorless, and nontoxic gas that only becomes a liquid at close to absolute zero (a curious and curiouser thing is that unlike every other element helium remains as a liquid at absolute zero [under normal pressures]). Its abundance in solar system in 23% by weight and 7.4% by moles, as well we have since learned that helium was in the first few minutes of the universe through nuclear fission. On that note, presently helium is being made in stars (like our own) by nuclear fission when they burn hydrogen. Also, most of the helium remaining on Earth is a result of radioactive decay, although we have stores of natural gas (that helium can be distilled from) in Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas (go Dorothy, or Toto). Helium does have 8 isotopes with known half-lives, two are stable: 3He and 4He, with 4He being the form 99.999% of naturally occurring helium. Uses include making your voice temporarily high-pitched (mostly breathed from balloons, another use), for pressurizing liquid fuel rockets, mixed with oxygen as “air” for divers, as a gas shield, in the making of titanium and zirconium, and  in liquid state to produce superconductivity in some metals. And there you have it, or part of it, or maybe just a forth…
other half as not promised

Foods Chemist, yummy no?

A foods/flavor chemist mostly focuses on improving the said food product for the costumer. They often deal with things like lasting of flavor and quality, affects of heating and cooling the product, and vitamin and mineral count of food.  They work with the structure of food and its composition. One example of this is having to modify the starch molecules in pudding so that it will retain the right texture. To begin, one would need at least an undergraduate degree in chemistry, then most go on to receive a masters in food science or related major. Most do several to five or more years of lab work and apprenticeships, then some apply for membership in the Society of Flavor Chemist (sorry to say it sounds like a joke [the name of it anyway]). From there, there are many jobs to take up in food chemistry: they can work for ingredient supply companies, checking reactions and fixing problems of different attendants to each other. As well, they could be studying the makeup of proteins, starches, and other molecules to see how each works in a “food system” and how they can alter them to improve a food. Also, they are the ones that work so hard to reduce fat content and keep you skinny. Or they could go more into applications research, in which they try find new ways to use ingredients or make new ingredients altogether (like changing compounds to make a sugar without calories). Or, more flavor oriented chemists will ingredients to try and create new flavors. K, work conditions are mostly inside in labs (often set up like kitchens with blenders, ovens, etc. along with the rest of the equipment needed); so, places of employment are mostly for food processing and ingredient supply companies, although others includes working for the FDA or U.S. Department of Agriculture. Even with the recession and such job prospects are still good, as people still need to eat, the population is growing, and many companies are looking for more ways to make food cheaper, healthier, and more (in virtue, not size).   Salary:

Entry Level Salary:
Average Salary:

Maximum Salary:
Sources:  http://portal.acs.org/  and  http://www.schoolsintheusa.com/
By: Torrey Wyatt

Drug Manufacturing
    Earn more money than other manufacturing industries
    Over half of all jobs are in California, New Jersey, Puerto Rico, Pennsylvania, and New York.
    Employment expected to increase as the need for drugs also increases
    The drug manufacturing industry make medicine and health-related products that help cure various diseases.

    Drug manufacturers work an average of 40.9 hours a week.

Work Conditions
    Quite safe, and work-related injuries are rare. Clean, well-lighted, air-conditioned, and quiet.   

Occupations in This Industry
    31% of the jobs in the drug manufacturing industry are professional and related careers, 27% are production jobs, which range from low-skilled to higher-skilled jobs. The rest are mainly management and office work.

    Requirements for jobs in the pharmaceutical and medicine manufacturing industry range from a few hours of on-the-job training to years of formal education plus job experience.

    The workers' average pay is $821 a week.

    Workers often get paid sick and vacation leaves. Also, they get health insurance.


Bismuth, Bi
Element #83
Metal, solid
Atomic Weight: 208.98040
Density: 9.78cm^-3
Melting Point:  271.5 Celsius
Boiling Point: 1564 Celsius
Most stable isotopes: 207, 208, 209, 210
Twice as abundant as gold
Similar to As, Sb
Most diamagnetic* metal and only mercury has a lower thermal conductivity
Heaviest naturally-occurring stable element, but is actually very slightly radioactive
Bismuth-209 alpha decays into Thallium-205
Used in cosmetics, medicine, and medical procedures

*Diamagnetic:  property of an object which causes it to create a magnetic field in opposition to an externally applied magnetic field, thus causing a repulsive effect.

By: Corey Sung

One chemistry related job is a water chemist.!!!
    Water covers over 75% of the earth and there are many ways to study it. Water chemists study the impact of water on other elements in the systems and how other elements in these systems affect the quality of water. Water chemists also contribute to the design of processes and policies to manage these effects.

Water chemists undertake a variety of responsibilities. Their titles vary as well. Some of which are hydrologist, geologist, hydrobiogeochemist, water purification chemist, wastewater treatment plant chemist, surface-water chemist, and groundwater chemist. The range in titles reflects the nature of the field and represents the wide range of choices of the work as well as the importance of these roles in our daily lives. Water chemists are both specialists and generalists. They use their knowledge about water to show that it affects ecosystems as a whole.

Water chemists generally work on teams that may include scientists with expertise in soil culture, geology, aquatic biology, statistics, forestry, hydrogeology, chemistry, and math modeling. The teams study and monitor a specific ecosystem or process. They find out the impact of water on other elements of the system and how these other elements affect the quality of the water. Most positions include fieldwork, but water chemists spend the majority of their time in the lab. Work hours may be nine to five but can also extend into the night and or the weekends if necessary to finish a project.

Water chemists often express a personal interest in the environment that goes beyond their scientific work.

 Lab experience is vital, and computer skills are necessary in the field. Courses in environmental chemistry will be helpful, especially those that bring you up to speed on current policy issues. This field requires a level of commitment and love for the environment.

The salary of a Water Chemists is around $50,000 per year in Utah

By: Haleigh Lovegrove

Atomic Number: 76
symbol: Os
Atomic Weight: 190.23
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f^14 5d^6 6s^2
Word Origin: from the Greek word osme, a smell or odor
    This element was discovered in 1803 in England by a man named Smithson Tennant.  It was discovered in the residue remaining when crude platinum was dissolved in aqua regia (which I think is hydrochloric acid and nitric acid combined).  Osmium has a melting point of 3045 +/- 30 °C, boiling point of 5027 +/- 100°C.  It is a lustrous blue-white metal.  It is very hard and remains brittle even at high temperatures.  When osmium is a solid it is unaffected by air at room temperature, but the powder will give off osmium tetroxide, a strong oxidizer, that is highly toxic.  It has a characteristic odor and recived its name from it.  Osmium is often credited as being the heaviest natural element, but iridium come close.  Osmium tetroxide can be used to stain fatty tissue for microscope slides and to detect fingerprints. Osmium is used to add hardness to alloys. It is also used for fountain pen tips, instrument pivots, and electrical contacts.  Osmium is found in iridomine and platinum-bearing sands, such as those found in the Americas and Urals. Osmium may also be found in nickel-bearing ores with other platinum metals.

Other facts:
Element Classification: Transition Metal
Density (g/cc): 22.57
Melting Point (K): 3327
Boiling Point (K): 5300
Appearance: blue-white, lustrous, hard metal
Atomic Radius (pm): 135
Atomic Volume (cc/mol): 8.43
Covalent Radius (pm): 126
Ionic Radius: 69 (+6e) 88 (+4e)
Specific Heat (@20°C J/g mol): 0.131
Fusion Heat (kJ/mol): 31.7
Evaporation Heat (kJ/mol): 738
Pauling Negativity Number: 2.2
First Ionizing Energy (kJ/mol): 819.8
Oxidation States: 8, 6, 4, 3, 2, 0, -2
Lattice Structure: Hexagonal
Lattice Constant (Å): 2.740

Food Chemist
Food scientists are mainly concerned with the chemistry of food products. In basic research, they examine properties of proteins, fats, starches, and carbohydrates, as well as microcomponents such as additives and flavorants, to determine how each works in a food system. In applications research, they often come up with new ways to use ingredients or new ingredients altogether, such as fat or sugar replacements. Most food chemist work in labs.  Labs are often set up like kitchens, with blenders, ovens, and other heat-processing equipment. This means food scientists do many things the same way we do when preparing food at home, but their goal is understanding the chemistry involved.  Food scientists are employed mainly by industry, both in food-processing and ingredient supply companies. Food chemists also work for the government—at the Food and Drug Administration or U.S. Department of Agriculture—and in academia. Academia conducts most of the basic research, while industry carries out more applications work. Food chemists who work for the government do basic research as well as study foods’ nutritional value and food safety.  Many food scientists start with an undergraduate degree in chemistry or biology and enter a food science program at the master's level. A Ph.D. may be required for those who wish to teach or conduct fundamental research.  Food and flavor chemists with bachelor's degrees often start in the low $30,000 range; master's degree chemists may earn in the low $40,000s, and Ph.D.s may earn between $50,000 and $100,000 per year. Salaries for food scientists average between $65,000 and $90,000 per year. Salaries for flavor chemists tend to be higher, averaging between $75,000 and $100,000.

By: Austin Gawrych

Atomic Symbol: Au                                        Melting Point: 1,064.43 degrees Celsius
Atomic Number: 79                                      Boiling Point: 2,807.0 degrees Celsius
Atomic Mass: 196.966 amu                         Density: 19.32 g/cubic centimeter
Isotopes: Au-194, Au-195, Au-196, Au-197, Au-198, and Au-199
The name gold comes from the Old English word geolo, meaning yellow, and the symbol comes from the Latin word aurum, meaning gold. Gold is a dense, soft, lustrous metal that is the most malleable and ductile. One gram can be pounded into a 1 square meter sheet, and can be beaten so thin you can see through it. Gold is considered a transition metal, and besides the noble gases, is the least reactive element. It is in high demand because it is a precious metal that is used for coins, jewelry, and several other things for thousands of years. For the most part, gold will not dissolve in an acid, with the exceptions of some alkaline solutions of cyanide, and mercury.  Nitric acid is often used to see if gold is present in a mixture of metal, since silver and other base metals will dissolve in it, whereas gold won’t. Gold naturally occurs in the form of nuggets, grains in rocks, veins and alluvial deposits. Gold has been and still is used as a standard for monetary values. Over 165,000 tons of gold have been mined throughout human history, and is consumed by jewelry (50%), investments (40%) and industry (10%).  Gold output is currently declining, and the only country to still back all of its currency by gold is Switzerland, which prevents inflation and economic downturn. Gold has previously been used for medicinal purposes.  The people thought something that beautiful could not possibly be bad for you, and some thought it to have healing powers. However, gold is rendered useless as an element inside the body, it will not react with any of the chemicals it will encounter within a human. Injectable gold, though, has been proven to ease pain and reduce the swelling of rheumatoid arthritis and tuberculosis. Gold is often used in technological products, such as electrical wiring, due to it high conductivity.

Biochemists study the chemical processes, reactions, and transformations in living organisms. They research that expands on the scientific knowledge of the chemistry of living things. They do this by in vitro research, analysis, synthesis, and experimenting. Many do applied research to find solutions to solve practical things or create new products, such as a vaccine. They typically work in a lab everyday for a biotechnology company such as Sorenson Genomics. Several biochemists study organisms on a molecular level (known as molecular biology), studying their DNA and genes, and gene expression. Biochemists must have a vast understanding of organic and inorganic chemistry. They must be extremely qualified to work in a lab, knowing how to take precise measurements and know the properties of several liquids and gases they will encounter at the lab on a daily basis.
 A career in biochemistry requires a degree in biochemistry or in chemistry to work as a technical assistant or in academic settings. A Ph.D. is required for individual research to be recognized. The major focuses on microbiology, molecular biology, molecular genetics, cell biology, and genomics. This field requires arduous training and is highly demanding, even at an undergraduate level.
            The current salary of a biochemist is about $69,000 per year, but this varies to over $160,000 per year due to the fact that several biochemists do independent research. Their salary also depends on their experience, amount of schooling, and their abilities. Biochemists have an excellent job outlook, because of their background in biology and chemistry; they can work in the fields of medicine, industrial, governmental and environmental. Employment of biochemists is expected to grow as fast as average for every occupation, so the degree is a good choice if you know you want to work in the field of science.
Approximately 50% of biochemists work at colleges and universities, either doing research or teaching the profession. Some biochemists work for companies such as breweries, drug companies, petroleum producers, and other manufacturers. The rest work for the government, research centers, or they are self-employed. 

 By: Amanda Larsen


Symbol: Sg
Atomic number:106
Atomic mass:263
Electron Configuration: [Rn] 5f14 6d4 7s2

Seaborgium is a man-made element that was created in 1974 in a lab led by Albert Ghiorso. The element was named in order to honor Nobel prize winner Glenn Theodore Seaborg who was a nuclear chemist. It is the part of the "trans-uranium" elements-- elements that go beyond uranium on the periodic table which is the heaviest known naturally-occurring element.The element is made by bombarding Californium-249 with heavy oxygen ions and it has only been produced in small amounts. It is a radioactive and transitional metal. It has seven isotopes, ranging with mass numbers from 258 to 266; none of these are stable. Its half lives range from approximately twenty-one seconds to half of a second. Seaborgium has had little research done on it and because of this not many of its properties. It still does not have any known uses other than its use for research.


http://www.chemicalelements.com/elements/sg.html; http://www.lbl.gov/ScienceArticles/Archive/seaborgium.html;
 http://www.lenntech.com/periodic/elements/sg.htm; http://www.chemicool.com/elements/seaborgium.html#appear


Geo-chemists try to understand the information found in liquids,gases, and mineral deposits in order to make decisions bout the industrial and scientific uses of this knowledge. They can provide help for the environment perhaps by making theories as to why the earth is changing. They can also help businesses by telling them where to drill for oil based on the composition of rocks. Geo-chemists study the occurrence and distribution of chemical elements in rocks and minerals. The work that they accomplish contributes to the use of natural resources and environmental policies.
      They tend to work in either high temperature or low temperature geochemistry. High temperature studies the formation of minerals and rocks deep in the crust or volcanoes. Low temperature geochemistry studies the behavior of minerals or elements reciting under conditions near the surface of the earth. Geo-chemists can determine where minerals are located by analyzing trace quantities of chemicals. They study the effects of erosion, sedimentation, and tectonic deformation. Another task they sometimes do is classify and identify fossilized life forms and minerals by using chemicals and biological composition to assess deposition environments and geological age.
      Geo-chemists typically work in the field, gathering data and samples. While they do work in doors, most of the time they are outside and sometimes must travel. So it is important that those who think of this as a future career enjoy the outdoors.The government employs a large number of Geo-chemists but it has leveled off in recent years.Those that work for the government have some more latitude in their research as opposed to those that work for a business where they must try and meet a customer's requirements. Employment opportunities are highly competitive amongst Geo-chemists. Positions in this industry may pick up if oil companies see an increase in profits and broaden their exploration efforts.
    In geochemistry people come from a variety of undergraduate studies. In order to prepare for a job in environmental geochemistry, environmentally related areas can help you to prepare. If you want to go into research a Ph.d and postdoctoral work are necessary. It is important to have a strong background in math, sciene, English and geography; most Geo-chemists have a minor in chemistry

Entry Level Salary:$36,580
Average Salary: $67,470



By: Kristy Lopez

Forensic Chemist

A forensic chemist is a professional chemist who analyzes evidence that is brought in from crime scenes and reaches a conclusion based on tests run on that piece of evidence. A forensic chemist's job is to identify and characterize the evidence as part of the larger process of solving a crime.
Evidence may include hair samples, paint chips, glass fragments, or blood stains. Understanding the evidence requires tools from many disciplines, including chemistry, biology, materials science, and genetics. The forensic chemist requires a strong background in chemical analysis and must be able to effectively communicate the results of laboratory analyses in reports and in the courtroom. A forensic science degree at both the undergraduate and graduate level is recommended.
The forensic science field is guardedly optimistic about job prospects for the future. Greater interest in the use of DNA analysis is expected to create more jobs. Those interested in DNA work should keep up with the rapidly changing technology and develop skills that distinguish them from the pack.


The chemical element with the symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic mass 39.098. Potassium is a soft silvery-white metallic alkali metal that oxidizes rapidly in air and is very reactive with water. Potassium ion is necessary for the function of all living cells, and is present in all plant and animal tissues. Because potassium ion passage is a key mechanism in nerve transmission, potassium depletion in animals, including humans, results in various neurological dysfunctions.

By: Madison Shaw