Tuesday, May 17, 2011

T-minus 14 days

Job title:  Medicinal Chemist   Initial website source: Google and then found http://portal.acs.org
This website was full of information regarding different chemistry related positions and then also provided job fair information and statistics for salary and demographics in relation to area/region.
Description:  Medicinal chemists apply their chemistry training to the process of synthesizing new pharmaceuticals. They also work on improving the process by which other pharmaceuticals are made. Most chemists work with a team of scientists from different disciplines, including biologists, toxicologists, pharmacologists, theoretical chemists, microbiologists, and biopharmacists. Together this team uses sophisticated analytical techniques to synthesize and test new drug products and to develop the most cost-effective and environmentally friendly means of production.
Pay:  These salaries reflect all changes in chemist’ salaries in industrial, private sectors and academics.

Actual Job Postings:  Source was at www.simplyhired.com
Company: Trius Therapeutics, Inc.
Basic requirements/information:
Location: San Diego, CA Posted Date: May 05, 2011Position Type: Full Time Job Code: Medicinal Chemist Position Required Education: Doctorate Areas of Expertise Desired: Chemistry and Research

Trius Therapeutics is a biopharmaceutical company focused on the discovery and development of innovative antibiotics for serious, life-threatening infections. We are preparing to initiate Phase 3 clinical trials for torezolid phosphate, an IV and orally administered second-generation oxazolidinone, for the treatment of serious gram-positive bacterial infections. Our research team uses leading structure-based drug design technologies to design and synthesize novel highly potent antibiotics. Trius pursues the highest quality science, a commitment that is reflected in our employees.


We have an immediate medicinal chemistry opening for an antibacterial project. Candidate will carry multi-step chemical syntheses: to make specific compounds of interest for SAR studies; to discover active drug candidates; and to improve the biological and pharmacological profiles of the drug candidates in the medicinal chemistry program. We are looking for candidates who are interested in a vibrant drug discovery team of a growing young company, and who are self-starters, highly motivated, and willing to take on exciting challenges.

Candidates must have a strong synthetic organic chemistry background and be able to carry out diverse chemical reactions to prepare complex heterocyclic molecules and natural products. Candidates must have a Ph.D. in synthetic organic chemistry with a minimum of 2-5 years of postdoctoral and/or industrial experience. Experience in total synthesis and/or heterocyclic chemistry is desirable. The position requires the candidate to work actively in the lab and be able to start work immediately.
Fun fact:    In 2008, 84,000 people were employed as chemists in the United States. (www.about.com)
Job Outlook for Chemists: Employment of chemists is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations through 2018.
Earnings for Chemists:  Chemists earned a median annual salary of $68,220 in 2009.
More Salary Information:  Most medicinal chemists increase their salaries as they gain professional experience. Those with under one year of experience earn average salaries ranging between $28,486 and $70,750 per year. The largest majority -- 33 percent -- had between one and four years of experience, earning average salaries ranging between $47,083 and $78,621 per year. Medicinal chemists who had 10 to 19 years of experience earned average salaries ranging between $77,902 and $125,786 per year.   Source: www.ehow.com
 by Morgan Olsen

ONE COOL ELEMENT...duh Platinum of course
Pt – Platinum
Atomic Weight: 195.08
It is listed as #78 or 118 as ordered by increasing atomic number.
I find it cool for many reasons and the first of them being, the name.  I love that it means little silver and was actually considered a derogatory term as it was considered a rough or undeveloped form of gold. If they only knew what it was and how useful it could be.  I know platinum is a beautiful silver color and also makes for incredible jewelry!  I am actually amazed at the weight of platinum and how strong it really is and the fact that is does not oxidize in air. I find it cool that it is such a versatile metal and has such a high boiling point.
With so much talk about how much gold is worth these days, I find it very interesting (and cool…if you will) that platinum is considered more precious than gold.
How cool are the common uses for platinum:
Platinum can be used in catalytic converters for automobiles, making crucibles, coating missile nose cones
jet engine fuel nozzles and the medical treatments of cancer…not only can you wear it but it can also save a life!
Platinum was said to be discovered by Antonio de Ulloa in South America in the year 1735. However the year is in question as earlier findings had been recorded.  Around 700 BC, it was said that the casket of Thebes was adorned with platinum along with gold and silver.
All in all, I think that platinum is by far one of the coolest elements with the exception of those elements that are needed to live such as oxygen!
And even more interesting facts about platinum:

Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s1
Word Origin: from the Spanish word platina, meaning 'little silver'
Isotopes: Six stable isotopes of platinum occur in nature (190, 192, 194, 195, 196, 198). Information on three additional radioisotopes is available (191, 193, 197).
Properties: Platinum has a melting point of 1772 °C, boiling point of 3827 +/- 100 °C, specific gravity of 21.45 (20 °C), with a valence of 1, 2, 3, or 4. Platinum is a ductile and malleable silvery-white metal. It does not oxidize in air at any temperature, although it is corroded by cyanides, halogens, sulfur, and caustic alkalis. Platinum does not dissolve in hydrochloric or nitric acid, but will dissolve when the two acids are mixed to form aqua regia.
Uses: Platinum is used in jewelry, wire, to make crucibles and vessels for laboratory work, electrical contacts, thermocouples, for coating items that must be exposed to high temperatures for long periods of time or must resist corrosion, and in dentistry. Platinum-cobalt alloys have interesting magnetic properties. Platinum absorbs large amounts of hydrogen at room temperature, yielding it at red heat. The metal is often used as a catalyst. Platinum wire will glow red-hot in the vapor of methanol, where is acts as a catalyst, converting it for formaldehyde. Hydrogen and oxygen will explode in the presence of platinum.
Sources: Platinum occurs in native form, usually with small amounts of other metals belonging to the same group (osmium, iridium, ruthenium, palladium, and rhodium). Another source of the metal is sperrylite (PtAs2).

Element Classification: Transition Metal
Density (g/cc): 21.45
Melting Point (K): 2045
Boiling Point (K): 4100
Appearance: very heavy, soft, silvery-white metal
Atomic Radius (pm): 139
Atomic Volume (cc/mol): 9.10
Covalent Radius (pm): 130
Ionic Radius: 65 (+4e) 80 (+2e)
Specific Heat (@20°C J/g mol): 0.133
Fusion Heat (kJ/mol): 21.76
Evaporation Heat (kJ/mol): ~470
Debye Temperature (K): 230.00
Pauling Negativity Number: 2.28
First Ionizing Energy (kJ/mol): 868.1
Oxidation States: 4, 2, 0
Lattice Structure: Face-Centered Cubic
Lattice Constant (Å): 3.920

References: Los Alamos National Laboratory (2001), Crescent Chemical Company (2001), Lange's Handbook of Chemistry (1952), CRC Handbook of Chemistry & Physics (18th Ed.)

I also found useful information on www.google.com www.wikipedia.com and www.ask.com

 By: Morgan Olsen 

Part 1


     Toxicologists develop new ways to determine the harmful effects of chemical and physical agents and the amount that will cause these effects. They also design and carry out carefully controlled studies of specific chemicals of social and economic importance to determine the conditions (such as those that have little or no negative impact on human health, other organisms, or the environment) under which they can be used safely Toxicologists assess the probability that particular chemicals, processes or situations present a significant risk to human health and/or the environment, and assist in the establishment of rules and regulations aimed at protecting and preserving human health and the environment. Academic toxicologists often explore molecular mechanisms of toxicity, whereas government agencies employ toxicologists to review and regulate drugs and chemicals.

     Jobs for toxicologists are available from Associates to Doctoral degrees. Those with doctoral degrees can recieve up to $35,000 to $60,000, with rapid advancement possible. Most executive positions in toxicology exceed $100,000 per year and some corporate executive toxicologists earn $200,000 or more. Salaries for master’s and/or bachelor’s degrees in toxicology will generally be less than those with doctoral degrees, but are still highly competitive with other science-based professions.


Part 2


     Copernicium is the heaviest element known. It was named after the astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus, it's atomic number is 112, has the symbol "Cn", and is 277 times heavier than hydrogen. The name follows the tradition of naming chemical elements after merited scientists. The name was officially announced on Feb. 19, on Nicolaus Copernicus' birthday. In the international union for chemistry, IUPAC, Hofmann and his team were able to produce the element Copernicium at GSI for the first time on Feb. 9, 1996. Using the 100-meter long GSI accelerator (an atom smasher), they fired zinc ions onto a lead foil. The fusion of the atomic nuclei of the two elements produced an atom of the new element 112. But the atom was only stable for a fraction of a second.

By: Candace Wilson

Amy Forbush, Period 7, 5/9/11
Food Chemists
Food scientists are mainly concerned with the chemistry of food products. In basic research, they examine properties of proteins, fats, starches, and carbohydrates, as well as microcomponents such as additives and flavorants, to determine how each works in a food system. In applications research, they often come up with new ways to use ingredients or new ingredients altogether, such as fat or sugar replacements. Flavor chemists use natural or artificial ingredients, sometimes in combination, to develop flavors.  Food scientists are employed mainly by industry, both in food-processing and ingredient supply companies. Food chemists also work for the government—at the Food and Drug Administration or U.S. Department of Agriculture—and in academia. Academia conducts most of the basic research, while industry carries out more applications work. Food chemists who work for the government do basic research as well as study foods’ nutritional value and food safety.  The pay is approximately $90,000 per year.


Strontium is a silvery-yellow, metallic element. Its atomic number is 38 and its symbol is Sr. It is a relatively soft element.  Strontium was first discovered in 1790 by the Scottish scientist Adair Crawford who was studying samples of a new mineral. This new mineral, strontianite, is now known to be composed of strontium carbonate, SrCO3. Crawford determined that this new mineral contained an element that had never been recognized before, which he identified and called strontium. Pure strontium was not isolated until 1808. Strontium belongs to a group of elements known as the alkali earth metals. Like other alkali metals, it is chemically active and will react with both air and water. Two radioactive isotopes of strontium, Strontium-89 and –90, are created by atomic bomb explosions and are found in their radioactive fallout. This radioactive strontium is absorbed by the body and replaces calcium in the bones. Once they become part of the bone, they remain there for the lifetime of the organism, giving off radiation.
By: Amy Forebush

Jarem Andersen period 3
Chemists: Chemists search for new knowledge and use existing knowledge about chemicals. Chemists study the properties of matter. They prepare test solutions to study how chemicals combine. They observe how substances react to heat, light, or other chemicals. They analyze compounds to learn their physical and chemical makeup. Chemists use computers to compile and analyze the results of their research. They often consult with other scientists about research and test results. In addition, chemists write technical reports or papers.
Average yearly salary: 91,000
Education and skills:

Have a high school diploma or GED; complete a bachelor's degree in an area of science; complete at least a master's degree in chemistry; have a good eye for detail; and be self-motivated.
By: Jarem Andersen

Extra Credit-Chemistry Related Career/Job

            Oceanography, also called oceanology or marine science, is the branch of Earth science that studies the ocean. It covers a wide range of topics, including marine organisms and ecosystem dynamics; ocean currents, waves, and geophysical fluid dynamics; plate tectonics and the geology of the sea floor; and fluxes of various chemical substances and physical properties within the ocean and across its boundaries. Oceanographers use science and mathematics to study and explain the complex interactions between seawater, fresh water, polar ice caps, the atmosphere and the biosphere. They are involved in areas such as mineral exploitation, shipping, fisheries, coastal construction, pollution, weather prediction, climate change and renewable energy. The study of oceanography is divided into branches:
These branches reflect the fact that many oceanographers are first trained in the exact sciences or mathematics and then focus on applying their interdisciplinary knowledge, skills and abilities to oceanography. Oceanographers may specialize and become:
§  marine geologists - studying the ocean basins;
§  marine chemists - who determine the chemical composition of water or sediments;
§  marine physicists - who study the properties of currents, waves and tides;
§  Marine biologists - who describe marine life and how organisms interact with their environment.
Oceanographers work in offices and laboratories in academia, industry and government. They often work in multidisciplinary teams. Typical work activities depend on the type of job, employer and level of training and experience. The role may include:
§  collecting samples and data from the sea, sea floor or atmosphere using specialized equipment and techniques;
§  analyzing samples for natural and contaminant composition;
§  looking at life forms and matter, such as trace metals, present in sea water;
§  performing simulations of ocean phenomena using computer or mathematical models;
§  using statistical models of laboratory and field data to investigate hypotheses and make predictions;
§  analyzing and interpreting data from samples, measurements and remote sensing aids;
§  attending conferences and going on research cruises;
§  submitting proposals to obtain research funding;
§  writing reports and papers on research activities;
§  Lecturing to university classes and leading field trips.
A bachelor's degree is the minimum requirement for beginning positions. Students can earn a degree in oceanography or take courses in oceanography and major in a related field such as biology, physics, chemistry, or engineering. Graduate training is usually required for advancement. A doctoral degree is required for college teaching and for many research positions. Many oceanographers get their first jobs as a result of contacts made during their schooling. The school placement office or professors at colleges and universities may be able to help prospective candidates find a job. It is also possible to apply directly to schools and research institutes where work is desirable. To get a job with a government agency, apply to take the necessary civil service test. Oceanographers who have a doctoral degree may advance to top research and administrative positions. Advancement is usually slow, however, because there are few administrative jobs in oceanography. Opportunities for oceanographers are expected to grow as fast as the average through the year 2012. Many job openings will result from workers in the field who retire. However, a lack of funding for work in the federal and state governments and other organizations will likely affect oceanographers. Salaries vary with education, experience, level of responsibility, and employer. Oceanographers with a bachelor's degree earn a starting salary in the range of $32,000 to $40,000 per year. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, in 2005 oceanographers working in managerial, supervisory, and nonsupervisory positions for the federal government earned an average of $87,007 per year. Workers in private industry may earn much more. Benefits generally include paid holidays and vacations, health insurance, and pension plans.

By: Ashley Jewell

Extra Credit-Elements
            Uranium is a silvery-white metallic chemical element in the actinide series of the periodic table with atomic number 92.  When refined, uranium is a silvery white, weakly radioactive metal, which is slightly softer than steel, strongly electropositive and a poor electrical conductor. It is malleable, ductile, and slightly paramagnetic. Uranium metal has very high density, being approximately 70% denser than lead, but slightly less dense than gold. It is assigned the chemical symbol U. A uranium atom has 92 protons and 92 electrons, of which 6 are valence electrons. The uranium nucleus binds between 141 and 146 neutrons, establishing six isotopes, the most common of which are uranium-238 (146 neutrons) and uranium-235 (143 neutrons). All isotopes are unstable and uranium is weakly radioactive. Uranium metal reacts with almost all nonmetallic elements and their compounds, with reactivity increasing with temperature. Hydrochloric and nitric acids dissolve uranium, but nonoxidizing acids attack the element very slowly. When finely divided, it can react with cold water; in air, uranium metal becomes coated with a dark layer of uranium oxide. Uranium in ores is extracted chemically and converted into uranium dioxide or other chemical forms usable in industry. It occurs naturally in low concentrations of a few parts per million in soil, rock and water, and is commercially extracted from uranium-bearing minerals such as uraninite. Many contemporary uses of uranium exploit its unique nuclear properties. Uranium-235 has the distinction of being the only naturally occurring fissile isotope. Uranium-238 is fissionable by fast neutrons, and is fertile, meaning it can be transmuted to fissile plutonium-239 in a nuclear reactor. Another fissile isotope, uranium-233, can be produced from natural thorium and is also important in nuclear technology. While uranium-238 has a small probability for spontaneous fission or even induced fission with fast neutrons, uranium-235 and to a lesser degree uranium-233 have a much higher fission cross-section for slow neutrons. In sufficient concentration, these isotopes maintain a sustained nuclear chain reaction. This generates the heat in nuclear power reactors, and produces the fissile material for nuclear weapons. Depleted uranium (U-238) is used in kinetic energy penetrators and armor plating. 
By: Ashley Jewell
Chemical engineering is a job in that has to do with chemistry that I think it would be fun!  They pay from $68,400-100,000.  This job is through CAITIN in Fremont, CA.  They need to be able to be an expert in surface chemistry, refigerant, chemistry, physical chemistry, thermodynamics, interface and nucleation kinetics, and fluid dynamic.  You need a Ph.D. in engineering sciences or chemistry to apply for this job.

I chose Tungsten (W).  Tungten is a metallic element with a gray-white color.  It is very resistant to acids and bases.  It oxidizes in air especially at higher temperatures.  Tungsten has the highest melting point compared to all of the other elements.  Tungsten comes from Sweedish words "tung" and "sten"  which mean "heavy stone".  Over 90% of the world's Tungsten reserves are outside of the United States.  In China, you can find over half of these reserves.  Canada and Russia also have large reserves.  Tungsten is often mixed with carbon to make a very strong and resistent material.  They use this for to make metal-working tools, cutting tools, drilling for oil, mining, and construction.  The filaments in light bulbs are also made from tungsten.  Tungsten can be added to steel to make super alloys.  Tungsten is also used wedding rings.
By: Brooke Maughan

Environmental Chemist
Environmental chemists study the relationship chemicals affecting a particular environment. They also study chemicals affecting a particular environment and make suggestions for how to address the situation. Environmental chemist do things like collecting and analyzing samples, developing remediation programs, changing production processes to ones that yield a more environmentally friendly product, advising on safety and emergency response, or dealing with government regulations and compliance issues. They do things that help our planet stay clean from the waste and dump that are left behind from people. They make up to around $60,000-$70,000 a year, which is pretty good pay. When you become a environmental chemist you work in any kind of place like in labs or actually working on the fields. 
 By: Rima Saif
Job: Forensic Scientist

Location: Federal, state, or local police department, medical examiner's office, forensic
services lab, or branch of the Federal Bureau of Investigation

Pay: Around $55,000 a year. (Depends really for who you are working for.)

A forensic scientist is an expert in a divisions of science: biology, chemistry, etc. They
have patience, the ability to adapt very quickly, integrity, and the ability to answer
questions clearly and accurately. A strong background in chemistry, instrumental
analysis, and criminalistics. Forensics seems to be an interesting job which involve lots

 By: Alivia Edwards

Job related to chemistry

One job that is related to chemisty is food and flavor chemisry.  These food and flavor chemists test the processes of canning, freezing, and other methods of preserving food.  They also experiment with textures, tastes, and flavors.  These people study how ingredients work together and how food can be improved for the benefit of the consumer.  they examine properties of proteins, fats, and starches as well as how these properties interact.  These chemists do work mainly in labs but also travel to work in kitchen environments with consumers.  These chemists are mostly employed by industry, and in order to get a job in this field one must complete an education in a food science program.

Periodic Table Element

Xenon is an element with periodic number 54.  This element is a noble gas and it is colorless, odorless, and heavy.  Xenon is not very reactive but does on occasion go through a few chemical changes.  Xenon was discovered by William Ramsay and Morris Travers right after krypton and neon were discovered. The outer valence shells of Xenon contains eight electrons.  When xenon is compressed within a close area, such as a tube, it often emits a lavenderish light or glow.  
By: Rachel Owen

McKenna Price extra credit
Pharmacist makes $104,260 a year which is approximately $50.13 an hour
Pharmacists dispense prescription drugs to patients they provide info about drugs and help patients understand the instructions their doctors or other health practitioners provided!
By: McKenna Price


Toxicology is the study of the adverse effects of chemical, physical or biological agents on people, animals, and the environment. Toxicologists are scientists trained to investigate, interpret, and communicate the nature of those effects.
Some common tasks of a toxicologist are:
  • Dealing with toxic or radioactive substances, and evaluating any harmful effect they may have.
  • Performing experiments both in the field and in the lab
  • Analyzing and evaluating data
  • Writing scientific papers on findings

The salary of a toxicologist depends on the degree of education he or she achieves along with amount of years of experience.
  • Bachelors Degree: 30K-90K
  • Masters Degree: 35K-95K
  • Doctorate Degree: 35K-150K

Cool Element: Terbium

Description: Mildly toxic, silvery gray. Hexagonal close packed.  Both malleable and ductile, and can be cut with a knife. Ions emit a strong green light when excited.

  • Terbium compounds are used as color phosphors in lighting applications such as trichromatic lighting and in color TV tubes. A terbium-iron alloy is used to provide metallic films for magneto-optic recording of data.

  • Terfenol-D (a terbium, iron and dysprosium alloy) expands or contracts in the presence of a magnetic field (magnetostriction). It is used in a speaker called the 'SoundBug', which turns any flat surface into a speaker. The 'SoundBug' vibrates any material onto which it is placed such as a table or desk, making it into a speaker.

  • Terbium is also used as a dopant for materials in solid-state devices.

By: Brian Landeen

Element: Calcium
Symbol: Ca
Atomic Number: 20
Atomic Weight: 40.08
       Calcium is an element that is essential to life because it makes up about 1/3 of human body mass. It is in group two of the periodic table- a soft, grey, metallic element. Calcium readily oxidizes in air. Its melting point is about 839 degrees Celsius and boiling at 1484 degrees Celsius.
       Calcium creates rigidity in bones and in egg shells, and is also necessary for plant growth. Calcium can be used to make many other materials as well. 

By: Sarah Jones

Battery Technologist~

Role: Electrochemistry, Chemistry

Salary: (depending on location) $60,000-$90,000

Job that requires a Battery Technologist that works within a technology group and characterizes the
performance, life, safety, and thermal attributes of Li-ion cells. This career involves post-mortem
investigations of Li-ion cells as well.

By: Ally Butterfield 


This wonderful element was discovered in the year 1774 by
Carl Wilhelm Scheele. Its name, Chlorine. Which originated from
the greek word khloros (green). It is obtained from salt, and its
uses are for water purification and is found in many bleaches.

Quick Facts:

Symbol: Cl
Atomic Number: 17
Atomic Mass: 35.4527 amu
Melting Point: -100.98 degrees celsius
Boiling Point: -34.6 degrees celsius
Number of protons/electrons: 17
Number of Neutrons: 18
Classification: Halogen
Color: Green

By: Ally Butterfield 

My job for the extra credit is an analytical chemist. This job is the study of the separation and chemical composition of certain chemical and artificial materials.  There are two methods separated into classical and instrumental. Classical uses separations like quantitative analysis by color, odor, and melting point.  Instrumental is pretty self explanatory, because it uses different instruments to categorize things.  it is also focused on improvements in experemental design and the creation of new measurement tools to be more accurate. The salary is about 55,000 dollars a year.

By: Erin Van Campen

*They analyze the presence of toxic substances in the environment-and how they affect animals and humans. (examples: asbestos, mercury, lead)
*It is expected that they research the harmful effects of radiation, and toxic items in the atmosphere.
*After they research, they attempt to find ways to prevent the toxins.
*Bachelor’s Degree in chemicals/ toxicology.
*Many move on to get a Master’s degree. It is recommended that the Master’s degree be attained in the area of either chemistry of biology.
*The annual wage depends on area, and experience and can range anywhere from 35,000$ to 133,000$
*The role of toxicologists has become very important, because of the public’s health concerns.
*Toxicologists typically work in laboratories—this is where they perform experiments and research assignments.
*The best way to get hired as a toxicologist is to build a strong, solid background.
*Good classes to take in high school if one wants to become a toxicologist is mathematics, chemistry, biology and environmental sciences-as much as possible.


*Neon is the 10th element on the Periodic Table. Its atomic weight is 20.1797. It melts at 24.56 K and boils at 27.07 K. Neon’s density is 0.0008999 per cubic centimeter. At room temperature, Neon is a gas. Neon is classified on the periodic table as a non-metal. Neon is considered a noble gas. Neon’s name comes from the Greek word ‘neos’ meaning new. It was discovered by Sir William Ramsay and Morris M. Travers. It was discovered through liquefied air, similarly to Krypton. Neon is the fourth most abundant element in the universe. The main use for neon is advertising signs. It can however, be combined with helium to make helium-neon lasers. Neon has 3 valence electrons.

 By: Lisa Schneider 
  A job involving chemistry is a forensic scientist. They are involved in the criminal justice system because they help to identify criminals and people that were murdered and other things. One thinng that they have to do that involves chemistry is they have to analyze a lot of chemical equations and break them down. They have to make them simple enough so that everyday people will be able to understand them. Another thing that they do with chemistry is test substances. They have to mix solutions that will react with other things found at a crime scene, such as blood, and make them more visible and obvious. They do a lot of tests with chemicals on substances and they also use ballistics gel to analyze evidence found at crime scenes. Also they help to identify fingerprints found at the crime scenes. They usually work in a lab where they proess things but they can go out into the field as well. in order to be a forensic scientist you usually need to have really good communication skills because they often have to present evidence to lawyers and judges. On average they make about $51,000 a year.

        I think that the coolest element is mercury. when we saw it in class i decided that it was the most interesting element that i had ever heard of or seen. it is slivery and shine and when you shake it it breaks apart into little balls and bounces around. It is a metal that is liquid at room temperature and is very dense. It is weird because it is a metal but it has no clevage, fracture, streak, or hardness. You cant measure how hard it is because it cannot scratch or be scratched. It also exppands at a constant rate with a rise in temperature. It was used in thermometers but is not anymore because it is poisonous and so it would be a bad idea to use it in everyday items.

By: Carter Woolf

One job that I found really interesting and requires chemistry was a nurse.  One of my really good friends, her sister had to take many chemistry classes to become a nurse. When I found out you were doing this I knew I could talk about this career. 

            I found a job at Children’s Hospital Boston. Here are some responsibilities of becoming a nurse: they give much comfort and emotional support through procedures, monitor clinical condition of patients and initiate appropriate care. Nurses also take precautionary measures to stop infections spreading.  Administer vaccination and immunization. Another responsibility is to educate how to take the best care of their loved ones. Nurses have to take chemistry classes for a reason, they take it because it will educate them how to know what medicine to give their patient. Also how to handle the medicine. You would not want a nurse not knowing how to give the patient its medicine…that could end up being a disaster.

            How much does a nurse earn? Well it depends on what education you have. If you have a master degree compared to a bachelor’s degree, the person who has the master’s degree would most likely make more than someone who has a bachelor’s degree. If you want a higher pay, there will be more college time, but in the end it is all worth it getting that extra education.


"Nurse Responsibilities and Duties - Job Responsibilities of Nurse." Sample Resumes ! FREE Sample Resume, Writing Tips & Resume Examples. © 2011 GreatSampleResume.com, 2011. Web. 16 May 2011. .

By: Mickelle Bailey 
    A Cosmetic chemists works at making beautiful people while using good and healthy and great products! They create lotions, makeup, shampoos and other consumer products.
In order to become a cosmetic chemist you must first get a degree in science.  What is really cool about this career is that you don’t necessarily need to specify in chemistry you can specify in physics or biology or microbiology or any science major you want! (as far as I understand). A cosmetic chemist knows about available raw materials, pigments, emulsions, powders and the suppliers producing them A cosmetic chemist must report all the DATA of the product to FDA and must put ingredients of pigments and materials in their advertisements. (for allergic people mostly)
    If you become a cosmetic chemist a person has a lot of opportunities within the career! Like for example, you can do research and and development products.  A person can also gain experience in creating product concepts and product formulations. Every job in this industry is important this includes the person who  changes the product from a simple formula on paper, into actually creating it, and then the person testing it and then packaging it.  All of this jobs are important because the final product must be FDA approved and in order to have this done the product must meet FDA cosmetics regulations. Or another option you can take ones having become a cosmetic chemist is to improve old product people are starting to get rashes from! Either way a cosmetic chemist uses chemistry through the formulas they create to make the product and other ways in the development of the product.
    According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) you can get paid from $28- to $29-an-hour. So the average is salary $56,000 to $58,000. However, entry-level jobs are about $30,000 and for the people who are at it for a looong time around  $60,000 to $90,000.
There are many good things about becoming a cosmetic chemist, but aside from the $$$$, you get to meet famous people!!! (sometimes) Because they like to create brands of make up and such so often they will contact you for help, specially  if you work for fragrances! 
By: Erendira Lopez

            Yttrium is named after a village in Sweden near Vauxholm.  It was discovered in 1794 by Johann Gadolin and is naturally composed on only Yttrium-89.  While Yttrium-89 is the only naturally composed isotope there are 19 unstable isotopes that are also known.  Yttrium has a metallic silver luster and is relatively stable in air except when divided finely and exposed to air that has a temperature of over 400 degrees C at which it ignites.  Yttrium oxides are used in the phosphors that produce the red color in television picture tubes.  The oxides also pose a potential use in ceramics and glass.  Yttrium oxides have a high melting point and contain impart shock resistance and low expansion to glass.  Yttrium Iron Garnets are used to filter microwaves and as transmitters and transducers of acoustic energy.  Some Yttrium Aluminum Garnets are used to simulate diamond gemstones.  Small quantities of yttrium may be added to chromium, molybdenum, zirconium, and titanium in order to reduce the grain size.  Plus Yttrium may be added to aluminum and magnesium alloys to increase their strength.  Vanadium and other nonferrous metals are deoxidized using Yttrium.  It may also be used as a catalyst in the polymerization of ethylene. 
Information found at:          http://chemistry.about.com/od/elementfacts/a/yttrium.htm

Forensic Chemists

A professional chemist analyzes evidence that is brought in from crime scenes. Then they reach conclusions by performing tests on the evidence.  They identify and characterize the evidence as part of the larger process of solving crimes.  They rarely conduct any investigative work and usually only handle evidence collected from the crime scene.  Evidence may include hair samples, paint chips, glass fragments, or blood stains.  In order to understand the evidence they use tools from many disciplines including chemistry, biology, material science, and genetics.  Knowledge of genetics is becoming increasingly important in this field due to the prevalence of DNA analysis being used by Forensic Chemists.  Forensic Chemists are often required to present their conclusions and how they arrived at them in court.  They often are called to give expert testimonies in court in order to move a case along.  They must be able to give impartial explanation to the jury that will assist in the final judgment, while they analyze evidence they do no determine the verdict.

            Most Forensic Chemists are employed by the government and work in government labs, police departments, medical examiner’s offices, forensic service labs, or a branch of the FBI.  Some, however, work in private labs to carry out forensic analyses.  They need to be versatile and patient due to the many hours spend rigorously applying analytical techniques to evidence in order to come up with conclusions.  Once they have developed their conclusions they need to be able to defend them in a court of law and must have integrity because it isn’t unusual for a forensic chemist’s position to try and be swayed by the different interests involved in the case. 

            It is strongly recommended that a Forensic Chemist have a good background in chemistry and instrumental analysis as well as some experience with criminalistics.  A forensic science degree at both undergraduate and graduate level is recommended.  Other courses that might prove useful include geology, soil chemistry, material science, microbiology, genetics, biochemistry, physiology, and toxicology. 

            The job outlook for forensic chemists guardedly optimistic; the greater use in DNA analysis is expected to create more jobs and those interested should attempt to keep up with the technology and skills required. 

            Average Salaries

All Chemists                  $92,000

Bachelor’s            $69,000

Master’s               $81,000

Doctor’s              $100,000-$101,000



Found information at:     http://portal.acs.org/portal/acs/corg/content?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=PP_ARTICLEMAIN&node_id=1188&content_id=CTP_003390&use_sec=true&sec_url_var=region1&__uuid=895e3df5-ac86-480c-b837-8e1c30d5e6b1

   By: Justice Schoenfeld
(What is the witching hour???) Seaborgium Symbol: Sg Atomic Number: 106 Color: unknown, but probably metallic and silvery white or grey in appearance Classification: Metallic Only very small amounts of element 106, Seaborgium, have ever been made. The first samples were made through a nuclear reaction involving fusion of an isotope of californium, 249Cf, with one of oxygen, 18O. Seaborgium is a synthetic element whose most stable isotope 271Sg has a half-life of 1.9 minutes. A new isotope 269Sg has a potentially slightly longer half-life (ca. 2.1 min) based on the observation of a single decay. Chemistry experiments with Seaborgium have firmly placed it in group 6 as a heavier homologue to tungsten. Element 106, now known as Seaborgium, was first created in 1974 at the Super HILAC accelerator at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory by a joint Lawrence Berkeley/Lawrence Livermore collaboration led by Albert Ghiorso and E. Kenneth Hulet. They produced the new nuclide 263Sg by bombarding a target of 249Cf with 18O ions. This nuclide decays by α emission with a half-life of 0.9 ± 0.2 sec. Much Seaborgium chemical behavior is predicted by extrapolation from its lighter cogeners molybdenum and tungsten. Molybdenum and tungsten readily form stable trioxides MO3, so Seaborgium should form SgO3. The oxides MO3 are soluble in alkali with the formation of oxyanions, so Seaborgium should form a seaborgate ion, SgO42−. In addition, WO3 reacts with acid, suggesting similar amphotericity for SgO3. Molybdenum oxide, MoO3, also reacts with moisture to form a hydroxide MoO2(OH)2, so SgO2(OH)2 is also feasible. The heavier homologues readily form the volatile, reactive hexahalides MX6 (X=Cl,F). Only tungsten forms the unstable hexabromide, WBr6. Therefore, the compounds SgF6 and SgCl6 are predicted, and "eka-tungsten character" may show itself in increased stability of the hexabromide, SgBr6. These halides are unstable to oxygen and moisture and readily form volatile oxyhalides, MOX4 and MO2X2. Therefore SgOX4 (X=F,Cl) and SgO2X2 (X=F,Cl) should be possible. In aqueous solution, a variety of anionic oxyfluoro-complexes are formed with fluoride ion, examples being MOF5− and MO3F33−. Similar Seaborgium complexes are expected. There are 12 known isotopes of Seaborgium (excluding meta-stable and K-spin isomers). The longest-lived is 271Sg which decays through alpha decay and spontaneous fission. It has a half-life of 1.9 minutes. The shortest-lived isotope is 258Sg which also decays through alpha decay and spontaneous fission. It has a half-life of 2.9 ms
Biochemist: Typical biochemists study chemical processes and chemical transformations in living organisms. The most common "industry" role is to develop biochemical products and processes. This can be done by conducting in vitro research, analysis, synthesis and experimenting. Identifying substances' chemical and physical properties in biological systems is of great importance, and can be carried out by doing various types of analysis'. Biochemists must also prepare technical reports after collecting, analyzing and summarizing the information and trends found. In biochemistry, researchers often break down complicated biological systems into its component parts. About 75% work in either basic or applied research; those in applied research take the fruits of basic research and employ them for the benefit of medicine, agriculture, veterinary science, environmental science, and manufacturing. Each of these fields offers safe harbor for the biochemist in search of a specialty, with clinical biochemists, for example, working in hospital laboratories and studying various tissues and body fluids to help them understand and treat diseases; and industrial biochemists, for another, involved in analytical research work such as checking the purity of food and beverages. Research biochemists may find work in the labs of biotechnology companies; agricultural, medical, and veterinary institutes; and, in the case of half of all biochemists, universities. They study chemical reactions in metabolism, growth, reproduction, and heredity and apply techniques drawn from biotechnology and genetic engineering to help them in their research. The workday usually includes some laboratory duties, such as culturing, filtering, purifying, drying, weighing, and measuring substances using special instruments. Research goes to the study the effects of foods, drugs, allergens and other substances on living tissues. Many biochemists are also interested in molecular biology, the study of life at the molecular level and the study of genes and gene expression. In the lab, biochemists need to have experience working around diverse liquid and gaseous chemicals and must know to take appropriate precautionary measures. The word "chemistry" is in biochemistry because of the molecular focus of biochemistry. Sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biochemist my brain
By: Annika Talbot 
Agronomist: Agronomists deal with interactions among plants, soils, and the environment. They work for banks; farm co-ops; seed, Ag supply, and lawn care companies; and government agencies. Salary: Average $48,670 Physicist: A scientist who studies or practices physics. Physicists study a wide range of physical phenomena in many branches of physics. Salary: Average $56,805 per year Horticulture: The industry and science of plant cultivation including the process of preparing soil for the planting of seeds, tubers, or cuttings. Salary: Average $150,000-$500,000 per year, gross income Chemical engineering:  the branch of engineering that deals with the application of physical science,and life sciences with mathematics and economics. Salary: Average $60,000- 80,000 per year. Hydrogen: It's number one, how can you not like it? It's the most common isotope as well so it must be well known. Hydrogen is very important in acid base chemistry testing strength of acid.
By: Isaac Khong
The main job I researched and found the most interesting that has to deal with chemistry is holding any position in the medical field. I have always thought that the medical field was very interesting, but have never really thought about what schooling would need to be done in order to be a part of that field. Our human bodies have so many different chemicals already in them, which would make perfect sense to me that we would have to know a lot of chemistry in order to deal with them. There are different requirements of chemistry to know for the different fields such as a doctor, nurse, dental hygienist, dentist, pediatrician, etc. For all of those careers, you have to know different combinations of chemicals that would work as an antibiotic against a cold or a concoction that would fill a cavity.     The pay for each type of job definitely depends on how difficult the job is and how much schooling is required for it. The harder the chemistry involved with the job, the much higher pay it will have. The more I think about it, the more I realize that chemistry is a major part of any job and is very important to understand when considering what type of career you want to take up when you are older. It was interesting learning what different types of jobs require a lot a knowledge about chemistry.
All elements in the periodic table are unique and interesting in their own way, but I chose to research the metal Lithium. At first I had absolutely no idea about any information about Lithium, but I came to find out that it was a neat element. Since it is a metal, it is obviously a solid at room temperature. It came from a Greek word “lithos” which means stone. It has the highest heat of all of the elements in the periodic table and is used to make various types of special glass, batteries, or ceramic inventions. It is actually the lightest element of all of the metals. It is close to the other metals aluminum, copper, etc. Since it is by them on the periodic table, it has very similar properties to the elements that surround it.     Lithium was discovered in the year 1817 by the chemist Johann Arfvedson. He discovered that when the metal was contained in an area without air that it was a silver color. As soon as it is exposed to the air, it turns a black charcoal color. The different types of environment it was put it, highly effected its physical appearance. Another thing that is interesting about Lithium is that it is very reactive with water but not reactive with salt or any other type of solute added to a solvent.     The thing I found most interesting about Lithium is that when it is burned, the flame color is red. And when it is very unbelievably hot, the flame turns to a white color. This reminded me of the flame lab we did in class. That was one of my favorites because it helped us understand and actually get to see what colors some of the different types of elements were when they burned. There are so many different physical changes that can happen when a chemical change occurs also. I think it is so cool! I am glad I chose to research Lithium because it was a lot more interesting than some of the other elements compared it to.
By: Natalie Rudd

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