Monday, December 20, 2010

Ho Ho Ho

Merry Christmas everyone. I hope each and everyone of you has a great winter break.

See you all next year. ;)

Friday, December 10, 2010

A note from the emergency broadcast system

Three questions. One from each section.


g.                  18.3g HBr to formula units

 
5.            KOH and HCl react to produce KCl and H2O. 
a) If you start with 75.0g of potassium hydroxide and excess HCl, how many grams of potassium chloride would be formed?
b) (H) If you react the KOH with 50g of HCl, how many grams of potassium chloride would be formed? Which product is the limiting reactant? How much of the reactant in excess would be left over?
 

f.                  85.6% C, 14.4% H [molecular weight of 42.1g]


I'm pretty sure I can't actually give better hints than this


  

Thursday, December 9, 2010

Give me your hand.




Vertigo is a type of dizziness [cool word--two z's!!]. It's caused by dysfunction in the inner ear (the wiki article is here).

Well, anyway...I'm interested...do you get vertigo when you watch this video? Double click to go the source. It's pretty cool stuff, and a job that I think I'd pass on. Alright, I do want to throw a paper airplane off of it.

Thursday, December 2, 2010

Seriously. A New Form of Life.

And here it is. Instead of using phosphorus, it substitutes arsenic. Wow! Links are here at Huffington Post, and here at NASA.

This is a pretty big deal. So, read all about it.

Come on, click. See. Read. This is good stuff.

Update: maybe not. stay tuned to this bat channel for more information as it becomes available. Again, if this was an emergency, you'd have bee where to go and what to do...because clearly, the guy telling you is hoping you'll wait around, so they can get a head start. I'm just sayin'.

Tuesday, November 30, 2010

To explore strange new worlds, to seek out new life and new civilizations, to boldly go where no man has gone before

Senator Jake Garn [wiki article here] visited Hillcrest High School today. He retired some time ago, and holds the distinct distinction of orbiting our planet aboard the space shuttle Discovery. He has a building at NASA named for him--and his name is used a measure (though, no, it's not an SI unit, sadly) of space sickness.

It was great to hear him speak--his message clear--about education leading your way into the great unknown of life. 6th period Honor's Chemistry was in attendance.

Why was he here? To honor three students who will have an experiment travel aboard Endeavor's final mission in February.

As point of interest I was in attendance at the landing of the first space shuttle at Edwards Air Force base (STS-1 Columbia) on April 14, 1981 [I was a freshman in high school].

[By the way, I'm FIRST to publish ANYTHING online or otherwise about his visit. Ha ha ha--so there!!!]

Thursday, November 18, 2010

Shone like a meteor, streaming to the wind

So, here's the deal. Comets leave a trail of dust as they travel through space. Our planet passes through that dust trail on our journey around the sun. Those dust particles create a brilliant trail of their own as they hit our planet's atmosphere and heat up. They get so hot they burn and are destroyed. Only large meteors ever hit the surface. Generally comets only leave small particles the size of a grain of sand. This meteor shower is called the Leonid's because it appears the dust particles are coming from the constellation Leo in the eastern sky.

There are several websites that describe it far better than me. But really, if it's not cloudy tonight look up. The magic of something so small making such a beautiful trail of light is something you need to see...more than once.

And wish upon that falling star.

Monday, November 15, 2010

Dropbox



Ever carry a flash drive? Or burn a disc to transfer files?

I used to. Now? I use Dropbox. It's pretty cool and I use it ALL the TIME, and so should you.

Really. Access all your files from any computer. Write your paper at home, and edit it at school. No flash drive.

Want to try it? It's free--2 GBs of storage free. Click here and you can get an extra 250MB for free.

Thursday, November 11, 2010

Give Me Liberty, Or Give Me Death!

Have you read his whole speech that day? March 23, 1775. The Speech in whole is here.

Thank you Mr. Henry. Thank you every soldier that has put their life on the line for our freedom.

Happy Veteran's Day.

Thursday, November 4, 2010

Only by the good influence of our conduct may we bring salvation in human affairs; or like a fatal comet we may bring destruction in our train

Breaking news.

The NASA spacecraft EPOXI passed just 400 miles from the nucleus of comet Hartley 2.

Here is one of the many images from the flyby. 

The Bad Astronomy blog at Discover description is excellent. It's here

Credit for image is gladly given to NASA. Their website with tons of information and more images is here.

Sunday, October 31, 2010

Yeah we all shine on, like the moon, and the stars, and the sun.

Okay, this is the coolest picture of the sun I've seen in a long time. A new perspective on a rather old subject. The image was taken by Alan Friedman [his astronomy photos are here], for NASA and the current issue of Discover magazine (article on Bad Astronomy here). It's a great article--concise, well written, and informative. Read it.

Really.

Wednesday, October 20, 2010

Ehhh... What's up Doc?

Alright, I appear on this blog for more than just pure entertainment.
Last year, I made cameos to hand out extra credit! yay.
So, i'm going to help you guys out.


And my extra credit is... well different.
I've done the wrong trousers and other random crap.
Because... this class is hard enough.

So the extra credit Has to be BE EXACT!

it will be your initials followed by
your favorite card and suit in a deck of cards

then by your initials again


ex.

NR Ace of Spades NR


oh and put it upside down on the bottom of the last page! (thanks for whoever told me... whoops)

He says "study, study, study"
And I'd do it if I were you, some of his questions can be difficult if you don't know what you are doing.

I'll Be Back

Nate R.


Sunday, October 10, 2010

Let him run!

So, I've included the greatest racehorse of all time on my blog...because, well he's the greatest racehorse of all time. For more on Secretariat see the wiki article, or his very own website.

Friday, September 24, 2010

Twenty-something


 So, this is my second period class. All faces are hidden to protect the innocent and guilty alike (I'm just sayin')

And yet It still moves

Galileo.

There are 63 known moons orbiting our gas giant planet Jupiter. Galileo could only see four of them. They're now called Galilean moons (Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto, to be more specific).



EXTRA CREDIT


In celebration of Galileo and Jupiter (it's the closest to Earth it's been for 50 years and won't get this close again for 75 years) I offer the following extra credit assignment. For five consecutive nights you'll need to be an amateur astronomer. Sit comfortably with a pair of binoculars or telescope and look at Jupiter. Then draw the Jupiter and the positions of it's Galilean moons each of the five nights. Finally, write two paragraphs: one about the moons themselves; the other about your experience with this assignment.


It's worth up to 20 points--depending on the quality of your work. This assignment does have an expiration date [it wraps up--due on my desk--by 7:45 am, Tuesday, October 5].

Thursday, September 23, 2010

Doctor, Doctor, Doctor, make me well



Aristotle

Aristotle was born in Stagira in 384 BC. At the age of 18 he admitted in to the young Greek aristocracy run by Plato, another Great Greek philosopher, and Aristotle became the most favorite student of Plato. Mainly he spent most of his life researching the natural science and he did the researches without making reference to the Mathematics. He contributed in physics, poetry, zoology, logic, rhetoric, politics, government, ethics, and biology. He died in 322 BC.




Isaac Newton was an English alchemist, mathematician, scientist and philosopher, who described universal gravitation and, via his classical mechanics.  Newton was the first to demonstrate that natural laws govern earthly motion and celestial motion. H’s associated with the scientific and the advancement of heliocentrism. H’s credited with being the first to demonstrate that white light is a composite, or mixture, of the other colors.




Annie Jump Cannon, an American astronomer, from 1863-1941. Cannon classified over 500,000 stars and published many papers on astronomy. She made a bibliography of variable stars that includes about 200,000 references. In 1896, she discovered a "dwarf nova" known as SS Cygni. Each year the American Association of University Women presents an Annie J. Cannon award for outstanding work in astronomy.




Zhang Heng was born in China in the year 78 and lived to the year 139. He was a mathematician, astronomer, and geographer. He constructed the first rotating celestial globe in China. He also invented the first seismoscope. It was the shape of a cylinder with eight dragon heads at the top and each one had a ball in its mouth. At the bottom there was eight frogs. Each frog was directly under a dragon's head. When an earthquake happened, a ball fell out of a dragon's mouth into a frog's mouth, making a noise.

Adriana Castillo per. 7
 



Rosalind Franklin was one of the scientists that helped to understand the molecular structure of DNA.  She, along with a small group of scientists, took X-ray photos of DNA, and also recorded data that Watson and Crick later said was the basis of their model for their first DNA molecule.  Franklin also assisted in the first research for the polio vaccine. She faced a lot of sexism, even after her death.  She was acknowledged rather patronizingly as a scientist, yet she continued with her research and made great contributions to the world of science.

~McKayla Vance, 6th period



Sir Isaac Newton was born on the year 1642 and died on 1727. Isaac Newton was born on the year Galileo died. Newton was the greatest English mathematician of his generation. He was a mathematician and physicist. He went to Trinity College. Newton was the one that came up with the three laws of motion. Newton’s work on optics and gravitation make him one of the greatest scientists that the world knows.

Isaac Khong
Period 7



Albert Einstein. Was born in Germany and is one of the most well known scientists of all time.
He is known for his therios of relativety.He recieved the Nobel prize in physics for his dicovery of the law photoelectric effect.
Albert Einstein contributed to science mainly in physics, but also other parts as well.
KayLee Roemmich, Period 6
Thomas Edison, born February 11th, 1847, was the seventh and last child to the Edison Family. He was born in Milan, Ohio and was homeschooled by his mother for most of his education. Thomas is known as a scientist, businessman, and inventor. He registered for over 1,000 patents for new inventions over a lifetime. He invented the phonograph, telecommunications, and the light bulb. He and his first wife had three children. After she died, he and his second wife also had three children. Thomas Edison died October 18th, 1931 from complications due to diabetes. 

 



Albert Einstein was born in ulm Germany, six weeks later the family moved to Munich, where he later on began his schooling at the Luitpold Gymnasium. it was said that einstein always had a clear view of the problems of physics and always wanted to solve them. Albert died on april 18 1955.

 This is BILL NYE THE SCIENCE GUY!!! Well here is a brief history of his life. Bill was born on November 27, 1955. Bill was not only a great scientest but also a great comedian. Now you may ask what did this scientest discover or what did he create. Well Bill dicovered a way to make science fun! he didnt only have a great show that went on for a stunning 4 years and 11 months, but also was a engineer at Boeing! Bill might have not dicovered a new melcular power thing, but he made science fun for kids that get bored easily.

Charles Darwin
February 12. 1809 - April 19. 1882
Charles was known for his theory of evolution. His theories were on the origin of species by natural selection, and descent of man. At age 16 he
was sent to study at the University of Edinburgh. Soon following Darwin's  father sent him to the University of cambridge to study divinity. After leaving Cambridge he began on his journey to the Canary Islands in 1831, traveling to the northern parts of South America. After traveling around the continents he soon realized that species would vary or different than those on opposite countries. Such as Argentina's ostiches were larget then Africa's, or that birds and tortoises off the Galapagos island were similar to those near by. His last years he no longer speculated on evolution but concentrated on botanical, and experienced the best health in his life from his years at Cambridge University. His theory was not accepted until after he had died, by later developements in genetics, and molecular biology.

  ~~BreeAnna Timmons~~ PERIOD 3RD

Gregor Johann Mendel (July 20, 1822 – January 6, 1884)

He was an Augustinian priest and a scientist, He gained fame
after death as the figurehead of the science of genetics for his
study of inheriting certain traits in pea plants. Mendel showed
that the inheritance of these traits have to follow certain laws
which were named after him. Mendel's work was not recognized
until the turn of the 20th century. The discovery of these laws
is the key to the study of genetics today.


Khalid Ibrahim P.3

 Giovanni Aldini: The Corpse Electrocutioner

Aldini was the nephew of Luigi Galvani. His uncle discovered the concept of  galvanism, Giovanni took his experiments a little bit...further.

In front of a live audience he conducted a experiment on a hung murderer (he deserved it). He applied conducting rods to the dead mans rectum and his arm began to punch the air, and his legs began to kick and flinch. Rod applied to the poor dead guys face made it twitch. The left eye popped open! Every one thought that guy came back to life! They said if he did they would have to hang him again! Many people present for this little “experiment” were friggen afraid of this totally mad scientist...duh! One poor old man who was there, apparently went home and died cause he was scared outa his mind!! I would be too......

 Muriel Smith 5th

 Archimedes born in Syracuse (c. 287 BC – c. 212 BC) one of the most important Greek mathematicians ever known to man. Much more advanced than the people of his time plain out and simple, he was a genius. You can thank him for calculus, geometry, and algebra. He laid out the founding blocks to make this possible. He was recognized by everybody, and was left alone, with his math tools. He later died in c. 212 BC by a Roman soldier that commanded him to meet General Marcellus but he refused, saying he had to finish his work. This infuriated the Roman soldier, who then stabbed him with a sword.

 
Niels Bohr

Niels Bohr made great contributions in the science world.  He was a Danish physicist that taught us a lot about quantum mechanics and atomic structure.  Bohr became a professor at the University of Copenhagen in 1916.  In 1922 Bohr received the Nobel Prize for physics.    He returned to Copenhagen after working on the Manhattan project.  Niels Bohr died in Copenhagen in 1962. 

Phoebus Levene was a Russian-American biochemist, who dated all the way back from the 1870's. He was the first one to realize that nucleic acids came in two different forms! One form, was DNA and they other was RNA,based on something called ribose and deoxyribose. He discovered that DNA contained a bunch of things! Such as adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine, and a few others. He decided that these components would link together and be called nucleotides. Later on, he made a conclusion that the structure of DNA was based on something named "tetranucleotide". In the rest of his life, he still had good ideas but, this is what he's mostly known for. (:

Annie Hall     Per: 5

 


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Tuesday, September 21, 2010

Doctor, Doctor, give me the news!

Albert Einstein was born in ulm, in the Kingdom of W├╝rttemberg in the German Empire on 14 March 1879,] His father was Hermann einstein, a salesman and engineer. His mother was Pauline Einstein In 1880, the family moved to Munich , where his father and his uncle founded Elektrotechnische Fabrik J. Einstein & Cie, a company that manufactured electrical equipment based on direct current.





Da Vinci
Leonardo di ser peiro da Vinci was an italian painter, sculptor, musician, architect, scientist, engineer, anatomist, botanist and writer.  He is considered to be one of the greatest painters of all time and one of the most diversley talented people who ever lived.  The Mona Lisa and the last supper are two of his most well know paintings.  He was born on April 15, 1452.  He spent his time inventing and studying the world around him.  he drew a picture of the perfect man who was supposed to be perfect in all forms.  He was brillant and is shown in may other artists art.
Annika Talbot         Period 6





He is probably the most well know scientist / physician in the history of time.  Albert Einstein was a German Physician who became an american citizen.  He created many theories, such as the theory of relativity... which I do not understand.  And he's considered as the father of modern physics.  He personally alerted President Roosevelt that Germans may be working on atomic weapons.  He's a very smart and cool man... or at least he was.


Nikola Tesla was one of the most famous people towards the 
advancements in electicity and lighting. Nikola was very fascinated
with electricity and was able to make many inventions with the concept 
of using electricity at the time. Tesla would also work a lot with electro magnets.

Benjamin Franklin was the chemist that invented the light bulb, the stove, the catheter, lightning rod, and the bifocals. He also invented the glass harmonica. The famous kite story is true; Ben gathered many important theories about electricity based solely on that kite. One really interesting fact that I liked about Ben was that he never even graduated. He founded one of the first fire fighting companies. He also developed one of the first theories for refrigeration by using a wet shirt on a hot day.



            -Justis Salazar P.7

Aaron founded the Institute of Molecular Biology in 1959 at the University of Oregon. In 1984 he retired from the University. He earned his doctorate in 1940 in physical organic chemistry at the University of Chicago. He was part of the team working on the Manhattan project (building of the first nuclear bomb).





Maria Sklodowska better known as Marie Curie. She was born in Warsaw on November 7,1867. Polonium named after the country of Marie's birth. She got her Doctor of Science Degree in 1903, her husband died and she started teaching and directing the laboratory and Physics class of her husband (Pierre Curie) that pasted away in 1906. United states gave her a gift of 50,000 donated by America friends of science so she can open her radium laboratory in Warsaw. She got Nobel Prizes for Chemistry and Physics. Some which included her with her husband. She found radioactivity and radiation. Later she died in Savoy, France on July 4 1934. She was an incredible women that showed anything can be done no matter if you are a women or men. Henri Becquerel helped too without them we wouldn’t never known about this thanks to them that help figure out much more.


(Sir) Isaac Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope then developed a theory of color based on observation that a prism decomposes white light into different shades of colors. He also made an empirical law of cooling and studied the speed of sound. He also showed the generalized binomial theorem, developed Newton’s method for approximating the roots of a function, and contributed to the study of power series. 

 Niels Bohr was born October 7, 1885.   He was a Danish Physicist who made helped to discover the atom's structure.  He recieved the Nobel Prize in physics in 1922.  He was apart of the manhattan project.  Which was the code name for development of nuclear bombs.  Neils Bohr married Margrethe Norlund in 1912.   His son Aage Bohr folowed in his father's footsteps and became a Nobel Prize winner in phsics in the year 1975.  Neils Bohr has said to be one of the most influential scientists of the 20th century.  Braxton Smith P.5

Chandrasekhar Venkata Raman was born at Trichinnapallie in Southern India. His father was a lecturer in mathematics and phsics. His earliest researchs in optics and acoustics were done while he was a student. He discovered the Raman effect which is "the change in wavelenght of light scattered while passing through a transparent medium, the collection of new wavelengths being characteristic of the sattering medium and differing from the fluorescent spectrum in being much less intense and in being unrelated to an absorption band of the medium." He was given a nobel peace prize in physics.
--Nick Parks Period 6

Aristotle WAS BORN AT STAGIRA IN NORTHERN GREECE. He spent twenty years of his life studying at the educational program devised by plato. He started teaching at the lyceum and taught the students reading and writing.  He studied an amazing  RANGE OF SUBJECTS,  FROM  LOGIC  PHILOSOPHY, AND ETHNICS TO PHYSICS , BIOLOGY, AND PSYCOLOGY. He is one of the most important founders of western philosophy.

 Thomas Edison was born February 11, 1847 in Milan, Ohio. Thomas didn't have much of a formal education. He was taught by his mother reading, writing and arithmetic but he also taught himself a lot too. Thomas began as a telegraph operater but later switched professions to become an inventor. He had several inventions that improved the telegraph. He also invented the phonograph but his invention that he is most known for today is his invention of the light bulb. Some people believe he didnt actally invent the light bulb but only improved it. 



Random facts about Albert Einstein.  Einstein was a very fat baby, and had an abnormaly large head.  When he was trying to enter into Swiss Federal Polytechnical School, he failed his entrance test.  After he divorced his first wife, he married his cousin.  When he won the Nobel prize for physics in 1922, he wasn't there to recieve his prize, instead he was on a voyage to Japan.
       






Marie Curie was the first person honored with two Nobel Prizes. She also was the first female professor at the University of Paris. She created the theroy of radioactivity. She discovered the elements: polonium and radium. Under her direction, treatment of “cancers” was first done using radio isotopes.

Johan Gottlieb Gahn (1745-1818) was a Swedish chemist and metallurgist. He is best known for discovering the element Manganese and being the first one to isolate it in 1774. Gahn started his career as a miner before studying mineralogy. Along with Carl Scheele, discovered the presence of phosphoric acid in bones. Additionally he was in the copper smelting business and made improvements in the smelting process. He is not well known due to his reluctance publishing his scientific findings. The mineral gahnite is named after him.       [Kristy Lopez Period 7]





December 5th, 1901, Wurzburg, Germany would be the birth place and 
time of Werner Heisenberg.  While his father was a professor of Middle 
and Modern Greek languages at the University of Munich, Werner decided 
to become a theoretical physicist, studying under the great German minds 
at the time, mainly Neils Bohr, for which the Bohr model, the atom model 
every one of us was taught, was named after.  He received his PhD from 
the University of Munich and wrote his groundbreaking theory, the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, in 1925.  Soon after, Werner would give lecture tours throughout the United States, Japan, and India.  However, it was his Uncertainty Principle that was his most revered work.  In it, Heisenberg tells us that we can't know either the velocity or the position of a atomic particle at the same time.  Ever.  And it was this theory that formed the basic foundation for quantum mechanics.  Aside from being an amazing physicist, Werner was also distinguished 
pianist, and had seven children.

Alex Cherry, Period 7

Johannes Kepler was born December 27, 1571. He was a German astronomer and the assistant to the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe. After Brahe died Kepler used the notes that Brahe had taken during his observations. Using all the data charts and calculations Brahe had made, Kepler was able to figure out that the planets orbited the sun in an elliptical pattern. Before he discovered this, people were not able to prove Copernicus’s idea of a heliocentric system because they tried to fit the orbit of the planets to circles.

Henrik O’Brien
Period 6











e Wright brothers, Orville and Wilbur, are the first men to ever build a fixed wing, powered, manned aircraft to fly in sustained flight.  They used their knowledge of mechanics gained in their shop by working with printing presses, bicycles, and other machinery.  They invented controls to steer the aircraft and maintain its equilibrium enabling them to control the aircraft while in powered flight.  They used the technique of warping the wings to control its banking either left or right.  They went to Kitty Hawk, North Carolina to test their designs.  Their first flight lasted three seconds and got progresively longer until a flight which lasted 59 seconds and resulted in a crash which left only the frame supporting the front rudder broken and was repaired with in a day or two.  The two brothers faced skepticism at first but after a successful flight in France by Wilbur everyone who had doubted them apologized and the brothers where world famous.








Bernardino Ramazzini,  Italian physician. He was professor at Modena (1682–1700) and at Padua until 1714. He is often called the father of industrial medicine, and his De Morbis Artificium was the first systematic exposition of occupational disease. Ramazzini saw the relationship between various metals and the symptoms of metallic poisoning that developed in the artisans who worked with them, and he recognized that paints were a factor in the poisoning of painters. He also made studies of diseases in other occupations (e.g., lung diseases of miners, eye conditions of printers).



Alexander Flemming was born in Lochfield, Scotland on the 6th of August in 1881.  He started studding medicine at the age of 14 when he moved to London, but it wasn't until 1928 until he made his greatest discovery, penicillin.  He was working when he noticed that growth of Staphylococcus bacteria was inhibited by a Penicillium mould that had accidentally contaminated a culture plate.  He named the active substance produced by the Penicillium mould Penicillin.  After years of researching the Penicillin they discovered that it was an infection-fighting agent that would prove to be the most efficacious life-saving drug in the world.  





Albert Einstein was a theoretical physicist , philosopher and author and best known scientist .
Einstein published more than 300 scientific along with over 150 non-scientific works,and received 
honorary doctorate degrees in science , medicine , and philosophy from many European and American
universities. His great intelligence and originality has made the word "Einstein" synonymous with genius. 

Dmitri Mendeleev was born in 1834 in Siberia.  He is the father of the Periodic Table.  Mendeleev organized the elements into groups. He also figured out how to predict the properties of new elements.   Several of his siblings died, but he continued to work on his lifelong project until his own death earning numerous awards for his magnificent work.
--Amy Forbush Period 7

Leonardo da Vinci is not only an artist, sculptor, geologist, etc... but he also was a scientist! He was born on the dreadful April 15th, also known as 'TAX DAY'!!  Due to his lack of education, others in the world ignored him as a scientist.  In his 13,000 page journal, others have found notes of inventions and chapters going over the studies of animals, babies, dissections, war machines, and study of plants.
W. Larsen Trelease Period 2







Mary Anning born in May 21, 1799 as daughter to Richard and Mary Anning in Lyme Regis. She was ten years old when she started doing paleontologist with her father, Richard who died due to a serious. After her father’s death she started to do more work with “curiosities”- fossils better well known as; she found many fossilized organisms.
Anning discovered innumberable additional fossils of scientific value. 1828, she found a specimen of the pterosaur Dimorphodon macryonx. In her paleontologist career she found many specimens to a rare sighting. Despite her being raised in poverty and low education at that she was a wonder to the paleontologist community.
Alivia Edwards Per 6


Elmer Verner McCollum:
He was born march 3 in 1879 in Scott, Kansas. He was a bio chemist who studied vitamins and tested this on rats by doing this he discovered vital amine which means the water was soluble.  He made the differences of vitamins with letters.  Which are vitamins a (fat)
Vitamin b (water soluble)
He later discovered vita min d while investigating cod liver oil.


 J. Robert Oppenheimer

He is most known for being the Scientific Director of Manhattan Project where he participated in the invention of the Atomic Bomb. He was a professor at Berkeley before the Manhattan Project and along with his students played a part in today’s modern understanding of Neutron Stars and Black Holes.  Oppenheimer also achieved things such as the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, electron-positron theory, Oppenheimer-Phillips process, and much more.